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La istoria de Europa covre la poplas ce abita Europa de la Preistoria asta oji. Alga de la sivilias la plu conoseda de la preistoria european ia es la minoan e la micenean, cual ia flori en la eda de bronze asta cuando los ia cade en 1200 aec.

Contenida

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Introdui

Esta libro presenta un vista jeneral de la istoria european, de la fini de la Impero Roman a oji, aprosima de la sentenio 5 a la sentenio 20. Esta es, evidente, un periodo alga capris, ma no intera nonusosa. An si atestas arceolojial mostra un Europa de colonial continuante tra desuples de miles de anios, la atesta de un ordina sosiolojial e political de esta comunias es rara si no completa asente. La istoria de la europeanes temprana es donce un istoria de sua utiles e colonias.

Eda neolitica (7 000 aec a 3 000 aec)

La periodo neolitica es marcada par la estende de la cultiva e la seramica. Utiles como la axa de petra es comun tra esta periodo ma sua orijin presede la neolitica. La axa de petra, an si simple en sua deisnio, es perfeta capas de desforesti. Lo es natural suposa ce utiles fada per linio ia es ance disponable a la om neolitica e con la aumenta de la cultiva la nesesa de iugos e arados de linio. Par contrasta, linio no es un material durante e donce la trovas arceolojial es rara. Atestas de sosias cultival data de 9 000 aec en Asia e on crede ce la praticas cultival ia estende a Europa tra du milenios. On ave un discute sur la developa nondependente de tecnolojias no influida par otra fonte esta la injenia interna de la comunia mesma an si plu investiga va es nesesada per prova esta idea. Per nosa intendes, nos va vide la estende de la tecnolojia neolitica como dependente de sosias en contata lunlotra a nos va adere a la teorias de progresa de este a ueste.

La mar Ejea e Europa sude

La atesta prima de un cultiva european es locada en Cnossos, Criti, e data de la milenio 6 aec. La Mar Ejeo con sua isolas diversa con distantia corta lunlotra e bon clima furni states ideal per coloni. Ondas seguente de migra par poplas tribal diferente de la este ia gida a la institui de comunias tra la Ejeo e ance longa la areas costal de Turcia e Elas moderna. No es un coavebi ce la romanes ia crede se mesme desendentes de Enea; la eroe lejendal de Troia; car en la lejendas e mitos de Europa clasica es locada la panteon de dios e eroes. Criti como un de la isolas plu grande en la Ejeo e locada entre la costa de Africa norde, la sude de la penisola eurooeran e la costa de Anatolia con recursos natural plu abundante ca otra isolas ejean plu peti e un masa de tera sufisinte per suporta un cuantia de abitores grande ia es ideal per coloni. La coloniste de Criti ci ia ariva en 6 500 aec ia trae con los la praticas cultival de la este de la capasias de viajores de mar; du fatores ci ta ave un rol xef en sua asende futur como un forsa major en la Ejeo.

En la continente de Elas sentral en la rejio de Tesalia; sentos de abitas neolitica ia es descovrida per arcelojia de campo, mapa airal e analise spetral par satelite. La planos aluvial de la rejio ia es atraente per comunias basada e cultiva e eleva de animales. La analise de fratos e abitas mostra un cultur comun entre esta sites con la seramica mostrante un stilo distinguida e un tecnica arcitetal "grilia fangida".

Europa norde

La casas de gamon preistorial de Vingelz en Suisa (3 000 aec) con sua "fabriceria" de axas de petra e abiterias sirca de un fonte de acua es tipal de otra sites cultiva trovada en Frans, Deutxland, Osteraic e otra locas de Europa. Esta "viletas" neolitica construida sirca de costas de lagos e pantanes de la Alpes mostra un colonia continuante de 4 500 anios. La Alpes no ia es un impedi per intercambia con trovas arceolojial de fratos seramica, utiles de petra e abiterias mostrante similias cual sola pote es esplicada per contata e intercambia mutua. Esta "viletas" neolitica probable ia interncambia e intersposi tra la Alpes an si esta ia es en alga aspetas limitada par la poca numero de abitores e ia es struturida per identifia familial e tribal en loca de nasionia.

La lejor debe considera ce la rejiones de Europa ia developa a tempos diferente an si ia esiste redes de intercambia estendosa traversante Europa en esta tempo. Esta fata permete un serta grado de uniformia entre periodos e tal on pote grupi periodos european temprana seguente la trovas arceolojial, normal relatada con utiles e armas.

La eda de bronze (3 000 aec to 700 aec ) La asende de la sivilias minoan (3 000 aec a 1 100 aec) e micenan e sua influi en la isolas ejean e Elas continental formi la istoria temprana de Europa sude. La descovre de esta sivilias temprana ia es la resulta de investigas per arceolojistes de la sentenio 1800 ci ia studia la leteratur clasica de la mundo antica per sua valua istorial en loca de sua contenida mitolojial. La descrives de re e sites refereda en la Iliada ia es investigada per trova trasas etnografial e jeografial e sua loca. Heinrich Schliemann e Arthur Evans ia es du abrivias en esta tipo de investiga. Schliemann ia xerca la site de Troia en la costa de Turcia moderna e Arthur Evans ia xerca site perdeda en la isolas ejean. Schliemann ci ia fa sua fortuna per la contratas en la Gera de Crim, ia vada a un loca en Turcia oji nomida Hisarlik. Investiga sprima de la loca de Hisarlik ia gida a algunes a proposa ce esta ia es la site perdeda de Troia refereda en la Iliade ce miles de anios plu tarde es conoseda par la regardores moderna per la cavalo de lenio. Schliemann ia es la prima escavor de esta loca e sua descovre de Troia es considerada la prima investiga moderna de istoria clasica en relata con sua mitos e leteratur. Poca pos de la descovre de Schliemann, Arthur Evans ia descovre la sivilia minoan en Criti. Schliemann ia fa otra grande descovre, la sivilia micenan ci ia domina la isolas ejean. De importa spesial per la europeanes es la tabletas linial B en Cnossos (Criti) par Arthur Evans. Esta tabletas de arjila conteni un forma de elinica anticin de la milenio 2 aec. Esta es la lingua scriveda elinica (european) plu antica conoseda par nos e donce sua importa en relata con la Iliada de Homero es fundal per nosa comprende e investiga de la mundo ejean en la eda de bronze.

 
La Partenon, Atenai, Elas

La periodo clasica (700 aec a 500 ec)

La asende de la site-stato elinica de 1000 aec a ante es en parte un continua de la ejemonia ce la sivilia minoan en micenan ia suprapone sur la rejio. An si la elinicas ia ave un punto de vista diferente de la site stato e ia developa formas de governa ci ia depende de la partisipa sitadan de cual Atina en la sentenio 5 aec es considerada la apico. Un de la aspetas noncomun de la sosia elinica ia es la esiste de la site stato de Sparta locada en la sude de la Peloponeso. Sparta ia es un potia militar rejional forte e un competor de Atina tra la periodo clasica. Lo ia es de interesa a alga atinanes como la filosofiste PLato ci esamina varia formas de governa en sua libro La Republica incluinte la sistem de casta geror de Sparta. La ata de 300 spartanes ci ia defende la pasaje de Termopilae contra la armada invadente persian es ancora considerada como capsulinte la esense de la site stato spartan. En la otra sites stato de Elas, la forma de un stato militar gidada par un elite de oligarcas ia es temeda e amirada. La istoria de la continente elinica es liada a la disputa entre Atina e Sparta; amba formante alias con otra sites stato elinicas. La Alia Delian ia representa la interesas de Atina e sua alias e la Alia Peloponesian la de Sparta. La idea de la site tato como un potia nondependente ia es tan forte ce la sites stato elinica ia sola vinse sua enemia cuando ia debe luta contra la invade stranjer ci ia menasa a tota los. A un ves la mensa stranjer ia es desaponesa, la sites stato ia reveni a sua enemia. A fini este luta interna entre la sites stato elinica ia permete la macedonsces gania control de tota Elas. La romane sia vide esta espande macedonsce como un menasa e la disputa ci ta apare a pos ta gida a la domina roman de tota Elas.

La apico de Atina en la sentenio 5 aec es ance la comensa de la espande de Roma ci ia es un site ensircada par otra tribus e sites stato. La espande de Roma ia comensa como alias o atacas contra otra renas de Latio con un vide en securi sua rol sentral en la rejio. A fini, cuando la fortia de Roma ia crese, ance ia fa sua estende e pronto la sites stato elinicas de la sude de Italia ia debe alia con Roma. La divides tribal interna en Ialia ia gida a la gera contra la samnitas (tribu de la sentro de Italia) ci ia menasa la sites stato elinicas de Italia. La geras de Roma contra Cartago ia fundi plu la loca de Roma en la rejio. Roma ia vinse la etruscanes a la norde de sua site e la tribus ensircante. Lo ia luta e vinse la tribus de la rejio sentral. Aora la sude de Italia ia veni su la ejemonia de Roma como un garda contra la estende de Cartago tra sua alias con la renas ejean oposante la potia roman. Roma ia deveni la senior de tota Italia en 272 aec. Esta domina de Italia ia gida a Roma a senti se confidada per lansa operas militar contra Cartago. Italia, ci en multa tempo ia defende se contra la armada de Cartago aora ia es atacante. A fini Roma ta ataca Cartago mesma en 148 aec e ia priva los de sua interesas en la Ejeo e en Espania a pos los litiga per pas. Roma aora ia estende sua controla a tota la Ejeo e a la areas costas de Espania. Cartago ia es destruida e la romanes no ia ermete abita la site denova.

La Impero Roman ia ateni sua apico en la periodo augustan (50 aec a 20 ec). An si Roma como un republica ia ave concistas teritorial estendosa, lo es en la rena de Augusto ce la imperio ia ateni sua estende teritorial plu grande. De esta periodo en Roma la Republica nunca ta esiste esetaen la imajina de la istoristes e la popla. La rena de Augusto ia vide la fini de la Republica e la comensa de la Imperio. An si la bandera "SPQR" (Senatus Populusque Romanus - La Senato e la Popla Roman) ia onda, sua valuas republican aora inclina a la voles de la imperor. La periodo augustan es videda com un eda orosa per Roma -la pas relativa e la stabilia en la rena de Augusto ia permete flori scrivores e arte roman. Per la 40 anios prosima, Roma ta es la potia plu grande en la mundo, an si a fini, en la sentenio 3 e 4, la presas ia gida a Roma abandona sua suporta a sua provinses.

La colasa de la Impero Roman, comensante en la sentenio 4 ec, ia causa un contrae de relatas cual ia uni la sentros urban de Europa, ma lo ia crea ance la funda per la reorganiza de provinses, cual en la sentenio 11 ia crea multe statos rejional peti. De la sentenio 11 a ante esta statos rejional peti ia comensa cambia a la presedentes de la nasiones european moderna. Esta ia es gidada partal par la inventa de la campo bancal, la comersia internasional e la asende de la statos comersial como Venezia cual ia controla la comersia de la este. La sentenio 5 es, donce, un punto de comensa usosa, perce forma la frontera istorial entre la antica e la moderna.

Jeografia

Europa no es un unia jeografial separada, e es multe fasil vide lo como tal, cuando en realida la cultures de Europa flue ultra sua frontesas. La campanianes de Italia o Espania, pd, ia ave plu en comun con sua visina en Africa norde ce con sua corespondentes en Deutxland o England. Simil, grande partes de Europa este, xef Rusia, mostra influis cultural importante de la cultures asian, e ia es istorial plu conetada con la este ca con la ueste.

Un problema importante es donce la natur porosa de la fronteras jeografial de Europa. En la sude, la paises european de la Mediteranean es a un naviga corta de la portos en Africa norde. En la sude-este, Europa es separada de Asia per un canal corta en la Bosforo, e la cultures plu importante en la rejio, como la Impero Bizantian e la Turces Osmanian, ia es estendeda entre Elas e Turcia. En la este Europa es separada de Asia par la Montes Ural, e la clima, en loca de la jeografia, es la bara plu sinifiosa per viaja entre la este e la ueste. Es sola en la ueste de Europa, con la Mar Atlantica ce on vide un paradr jeografial clar.

La responde a este problem es aseta ce trata Europa como un unia separada es alga caprisal. Lo es esensal, en tota istoria, defini la campo de studia, e trata Europa como un unia es un forma de ateni esta intende. Si on recorda esta, la problem de la jeografia european vera no es un problem. La fronteras jeografial caprisal de Europa no debe sustrae la atentas de investiga la istoria de rejios individua en la continente.

Como prosimi la investiga istorial

La istoria es frecuente videda en termas naral, como un nara consernante la ativias de nosa asendentes coletiva. Lo es vera, a grado grande, ce la istoria es un forma de nara, an con tota. An tal, diferente de otra formas de nara, istoria es prosima fundida sur avenis real e es donce formida par alga regulas e gidas.

La plu importante de estas governa como la istoristes leje la material fonte. Ante ce la istoriste pote confidada dise ce un aveni particular ia aveni, el nesesa fatos suportante. Multa de la fatos suportante es documental, como rejistras scriveda per jeneras pasada en la vive dial. Lo es rara ce esta documentas ia es scriveda per la consuma de jeneras futur, e donce es importante per la istoriste comprende la forsas ce ia dona forma la produi de esta documentos.

On ave un numero de critios per esta:

  • Cual ia motiva esta persona per ata?
  • Cual ia es la disposas dominante en acel tempo regardante esta idea?
  • Como avenis presendente ia causa esta?
  • Cual es la avenis simil e como ia evidenti?
  • Como va esta aveni importa en la futur?
  • Perce esta aveni aveni aora en loca de ante o plu tarda?
  • Como ia es este aveni afetada par forsas en la sosia= Este forsas pote inclui la eglesa, constrinjes economial, la governa, jeografia, la educa de la persona como ance la educa jeneral de la sosia, tecnolojia, nasionalisme, cultur e tradisiones, e la clase de la persona.


Esta pode es resomada en la metodo 'ADAITIL' per evalua fontes istorial:

  • 'A' - considera de la autor de la fonte
  • 'D' - considera de la data de la fonte
  • 'A' - considera de la regardores intendeda de la fonte
  • 'I' - considera de la intende de la fonte
  • 'T' - considera de la tono de la fonte
  • 'I' - considera de lo cual la fonte implica (dedui)
  • 'L' - considera de la limitas de la fonte

La usa de esta tecnicas va permete a tu saisi plu bon la avenis documentida en esta libro, e los va permete a tu aplica tua conose estra memori.

Tota nosa contribuores espera ce tu va trova esta libro usosa per aprende plu sur la istoria de Europa -.

Cade de la Impero Roman

 
Testa colosal de l Imperor Constantino la grande. Constantino ia es la imperor cristian un. (Marmo, arte roman, sentenio 4 ec).

Es normal parla sur la cade de la Impero Roman, ma en multa formas esta descrive es tro simple, e pote es malgidante. Serta, la stato sentrida governada par Augusto Cesar e sua susesores ia desapare de la istoria. An tal, la lejes e la lingua ce Roma ia dona a un vasta area de Europa ia persiste en sua influi pos la colasa de la Impero.

La ultima periodo de la Impero Roman ia plen de tumultas sosial e political. Multa de la tumulta ia envolve la Impero ueste falinte. De la sentenio 3, la impero roman ia es su ataca constante par forsas interna e esterna. Tribus cual Roma ia nunca tra su la Pax Romana ia vide en un Roma debilida la momento per o estende o ataca. La custa de manteni la campas avansada atacfada plu distante e la fronteras de la impero ia sinifia ce un armada profesional ia debe es mantenida estra la pais constante, un atenta cara per cualce pais en cualce periodo. Interne la militari de la Impero Roman ia sinifica ce la armada ia deveni un forsa politica potiosa e en la stadios plu tarda de la Impero ia ave un rol major en la eleje de la Imperor.

An si Roma ia concista la este e la ueste, esta site peti en la colinas alban en la rejio de Latio ia vide se estendeda. Con un grande impero ia nase la nesese de estende la sitadania a esta ia gida a ce la imperores ia veni de tota la impero en la ultima anios.

Esta tensas a la fibre mesma de la impero ia desinia un linia entre la provinses este e ueste. La fato ce la Site de Roma ia comensa un periodo de declina e la importa perene de emporta de gran de Egipte e otra provinses de la este ia sinifia ce Bizantio (oji IStanbul e ante nomida Constantinopoli) ta es usada per lia la este de la Impero Roman con la ueste. Constantino 1, en un atenta de usa Constantinopla como representante de la integra completa de la Impero Roman Este en la Impero UEste Latin, ia comensa nonintendeda la rompe de la impero. Pos la mori de Constantino la impero en la ueste ia vide a un periodo de tumulta cuando sua tre fios ia luta lunlotra per controla Roma. A fini Constanti 2 deveni la sola imperor a pos sua du fratres ia es asasinada, e ia eleva sua cusin Constantio Galo a Cesar de la Impero Este. La impero ia es aora du potias diferente, un fato ce ta formi la istoria de la eda medieval e la curso de cristianisme per la mil anios seguente.

La influi e potia diminuinte de Roma ia gida a la retira de la cultur roman ci a un ves ia domina la provinses. A tota la provinses roman, la sitizanes nonromana de ci la asendentes ia adota Roma como la ase de sua mundo ia comensa a dona plu asentua a sua identias local -galos, espanioles, britones, africanes de norde ia plena la vacua lasada para la departe de la armadas roman redeclarante sua cultur e lejes propre. La Pax Romana comandada par Augusto ia permete ja ce leges e costumes local domina supra la leges de Roma, si la provinses ta aseta mera ce sua militares e impostas es controlada. En relata con esta la fini de la Impero Roman ia sinifia ce la provinses ia es aora libre per organiza sua propre asuntos militar e economial. An tal los no ia dejeta tota cual Roma ia ofre. La latina ia es la lingua franca de politicas e comersia, e la on ia adota zelosa cualias plu bon de lege roman, spesial en relata con la codigi de leges cual ia deveni alora asedable per la publica e aplicable a tota sitadanes.

Tribus enemia ci a un ves ia es repulsada par la armada roman ia pote invade aora tra la frontera roman, coloninte la teras imperial. Esta tribus no ia es aliena a la cultur roman con multa de sua gides e popla avente contato constante con Roma an tra la macina economial e political de impero. A pos organizante sosias paralel en la areas ci ia invade, lo ia es natural ce los ia misca con la popla roman esistente. Esta prosede ia dura entre du e tre sentenios e ia resulta en un cambia en la composa de la sosia european dentro de la fronteras roman. La parte este de lingua elinica aora ia vide Bizantio como sua sentro, e esta divide de la impero ta deveni permanente en la Europa de la sentenios plu tarda.

Lo plu importante de la atas de Constantino cmo imperor ia es converti en sua leto de mori a cristianisme. An si la Impero ia move a Constantinopla, la papia ia resta en Roma, como consetida par San Pedro, la prima pape. A alga grado la potia papal ia deveni sinonim de esta de la imperor ueste. La capital secular de la impero ueste ia es Ravenna. La xefia povre e la angusa par la invade ia gida a la cade de Roma en 410 par la visigotas. La Impero ueste ia cade en 476 en Ravenna. La impero este restante ia es refereda como Impero bizantian, par sua capital. Italia ta no es un stato unida asta la sentenio 19.

La barbares ia uni

A cuando la potia roman ia esflue, tribus de fora de la fronteas vea ia move per completi la vacua. La visigotas ia institui un rena nova en la penisola Iberian, en cuando la vandales a fini ia coloni Africa norde. En Britan, la tribus germanica ia ariva e coloni la costa este en 5 ec. Esta colonistes a fini ia institui renas anglosason ce ia completi la vacua lasada par la parti de la romanes. La Italia posroman mesma ia cade su la influe de la ostrogotas, de ci la influente re, Teoderico, ia es asetada como imperor nova par la Senato roman, e ia ave bona relatas con la pape cristian, ma ia manteni sua seja de potia en Ravena, en Italia norde. Italia sude e Sicilia ia vive su la influe de la bizantianes per multa sentenios en esta periodo.

La provinse de Galia, ci ia es un de la plu rica de la provinses roman ueste, ia es concistada par la francos. La sosia galo-roman a sua gidores asorbe a fini la francos, dependente de la gerores per securia e fortinte lias de sposi con la clanes franco. La rena franco nova ia inclui multa de Deutxland ueste e norde de Frans e sua potia en esta rejio ia es fada evidente per la vinse contra la visigotas e otra enemis barbar. La parola deutx per Frans Frankreich, onora la rena franco de la pasada.

La dinastia merovingian, nomida pos la re tribal lejendas Merovc, ia es la prima en governa la rena franco. Sua gidor plu destrosa e potiosa, Clovis, ia converti a catolicisme en 496 como promete per vinse en batalia. A sua morte, el ia divide sua rena entre sua fios, de ci la compete ia deveni en un sentenio de geras interna sanguosa. Alga, como Chilperic, ia es demente, e zero de los ia vole sede sua teras o potia per reuni la rena. La fortunas de la merovingianes ia esflue e los ia despare en nonpertine.

La asende de un nova potia governante, la dinastia carolingian, ia es la resulta de la potia cresente de la Majordomo, o "testa de la casa". La res merovingian ia dona a sua majordomo potia estendosa per gida e contrla sua estatos, e alga de estas ia usa esta potia per comanda e controla teritorios intera. Pepin 2 ia es un de la prima en estende sua potia tan multe ce ia ave potia sur cuasi tota la Galia. Sua fio, ance un majordomo Charles Martel, ia gania la batalia de Tours contra la armadas muslim invadente, escluinte la influi muslim de cuasi tota Europa. "Martel", ia es un refere a sua arma elejeda.

La fio de Martel, Peni 3 la basa, pos solisitante suporta de la papia, ia dejeta la "pupetas" merovingian. La papia ia dona a Pepino permete per suverti la morevingianes per securi la suporta franco a la statos papal, e proteje contra la avansa langobarda. Pepin ia es declarada rex Dei gratia (Re par la grasia de Dio) donce instituinte un presedente potiosa per la asolutisme european, razonante ce ia es la desira de la Dio cristian declara algun re.

(Amba Pepin 2 e Pepin 3 ia es conoseda como Pepin la joven, como Pepin 1 ia es Pepin la Major. An tal, Pepin 3 es ance conoseda como Pepinla basa es esta es la nom ce nos va usa asi).

 
Coroni de Carlo la grande, de la manoscrito luminada Grandes Chroniques de France (1375-79).

Pepin la basa ia es la fundor de la dinastian carolingian, cual ia culmina en sua fio Carlo la grande. Carlo la grande ia es la prima re coronida Imperor Roman Santa (la suposada seguor de la Cesares e la protejor de la Eglesa Catolica). Carlo la grande, de ci la impero ia estende per concista per ensirca plu de Deutxland e Frans de oji, ia crea alga cosa de un renasa per la mundo inteletal de la rena franco. Carlo la grande ia organiza moncerias e ia fa ce la monces ta copia la Biblia, en manscritos luminada, en salas nomida scriptoria. Per femes la stofa ia es un de la poca formas en cual ia pote estende sua orizones inteletal e fa alga diferente de pari e labora en la campos.

La fios de Carlo la grande ia segue la tradision germanica a pos sua mori e ai divide la rena entre los en la sentenio 9. "Francia" este e ueste ia emerji, cual en la sentenios seguente ta es nomida Frans e Deutxland (la ultima a pos conoseda como Impero Roman Santa). En esta tempo, la rejions abitada de Europa ueste ia es plu atacada par la vicinges, grupos de gerores maral de Danmarc e Scandinavia de ci la dios ia inclui Tor e Odin, e de ci la atacas a sites e eglesas rica european ia es sola un de la cualias de sua redes de comersia, cual ensirca la Atlantica e Europa de Newfoundland a Bizantio. La ativia vicing ia continua asta ce Noria e Suedia ia aseta esitante la cristianisme en la sentenio 11 e 12. England, Er e Normandia franses ia vide un coloni vicing sustantial en esta periodo, con resultas istorial importante.

En Espania, un rena elejal visigotica ia flori, con disputas constante, asta 711, cuando la plu parte de Espania ia cade rapida su la invadores muslim. Un grande impero muslim, nomida la Califia de Cordoba, ia clori cultural e per la armadas. EN la montanias de la norde, renas cristian peti como Galicia, Asturia, Navarra e Aragon ia persiste. La frontera con la impero franco, nomida en espaniol Marca Hispánica ia inclui Barcelona desde 801 (la orijin de la Prinsia de Catalunia). La muslimes ia perde sua ultima rena espaniol, Granada, en 1492, cuando la re de Aragon, Fernando, ia sposi la rea de Castilla, Isabel, en 1469. La uni dinastial, produinte la neta Carlos 5, ia manteni la fronteras interna e la nasionalias, lejes e instituidas diferente de cada un de la renas antica asta la sentenio 18. Navarra ia es ajuntada en 1515 e ancora mantenia sua lejes e politica finansial propre, como Euscadi.

Italia ta comensa a separa en renas plu peti gidada par formas de governa diferente. An tal, la papia ta es capas de eserse grande forte supra la plu parte de la popla european.

Europa este, min poplida e plu distante de la fronteras roman, ia esperia multe invades e migras entre la sentenios 6 e 10. De sua propre pais en Rusia sude, la polas slavica ia estende a ueste seguente la migras germanica, coloninte la Balcanes, Bohemia, Polsca e Deutxland este e dividinte sua fidas a la seguores de Roma. La polsces, txesces e corvatsces ia adota la cristianisme latina en cuando la res balgarsce, serbsce e rusce ia aseta la rito elinica bizantian. La bosnianes, un tribu peti de slavicas sude, ia dota un liturjia propre e en la sentenio 10 ia establi la Eglesa Bosnian, frecuente confundida con la bogomilisme par causa ce la res bosnian ia mostra un alta grado de tolera con los e an ia proteje los, alga veses con resultas trajedial para su propre modo de vive e serta con resultas istorial per la Balcanes intera. La magiares, un tribu de gerores montada etnical relatada con la hunes, ia entra en Europa de la stepes rusce en la sentenio 9, ia luta un serie de geras con la imperores deutx ci ia segue a Carlo la grande, e a fini ia concista Magiar como un rena cristian latina (sua re Stefan ia deveni santa). La poplas de la rejio baltica, como la prusianes e latvianes, ia resta nontacad par la estende cristian en la eda medieval temprana. En Rusia, un rena en Ciev ia es formida, asorbente amba poplas slavica e elementos scandinavian.

 
La Batalia de Hastings. La tapeto imajal de Bayeux mostra la concista normande de Engla (s 1070).

Britan ia es divideda en varia renas pos la invade anglosasan, asta la periodo de la invades dansce. La Re Alfredo ia uni la plu parte de England en un rena en la sentenio 9 tarda. En 10 otobre 1066 William la Bastardo, plu tarde William la Concistor, ia comensa un invade normande de England con la batalia de Hastings. La control franses sur England en esta periodo es mostrada par la vocabulo formal en engles, cual veni de la franses.

En 1215 la barones de England ia forsa a la re John a siniala Magna Carta. La re John ia es spesial despotin. El ia maltrata sua vasales, ia mata sua sobrin xico Arthur, e ia trae la coleria de la Eglesa supra la pais en la forma de Proibi Papal (no sersis egleas ia es fada: no sposis, funeras o misas). Sua barones a fini ia uni contra el. En cuando el ia es xasante, los ia ensirca el donante el la eleje de sinia la Magna Carta o la mori. La Magna Carta ia conserva par leje alga deretos cual la barones ia merita. La potia real asoluta ia lasa loca a governa par acorda e la funda de la Parlamento ia es locada.

Arte romanica e gotica

 
Arciteta gotica: Catedral de Notre Dame

Romanica es la nom donada a la stilo arcitetal ce on trova traversante Eruopa entre la sentenios 10 e 13. Lo is empresta elementos de la arciteta roman antica e la bizantian este en un fusa de ricia e usosia. Esta es la eglesas de un relijio cristian rica e estendente. La asende de ordinas relijiosa e moncalia, la nesesa de furni a congregas plu grande cuando la popla ia crese; la desira de sponsori e memoria como un benficor cristian e la nesese potiosa de construi eglesas cual refleta la belia e potia de emosia relijial es fatores xef en la arciteta romanica. Tu pote es sin duta cuando entra a la Catedral de Notre Dame ce tua carne corpal es en terra firma ma tua spirito aparteni a la rena de la sielos. Multe eglesas resta de esta periodo, atestante la developa de metodos nova de construi voltas en petra en loca de lenio. La stilo de la basilica sede a espresas plu alta de arciteta relijiosa. La arciteta romanica es desiniada per espresa la potia spirital e autoria de la Eglesa. Multa casteles ia comensa a es construida en esta tempo e ia estende a pos. La cualias xef de la arcitera romanica es la arcos de testa ronda en fenetras, portes e arcadas, colonas retangulo e silindre, voltas semisilindre, voltas crusada e fenetras duplida. Eglesas romanica tarda ta pote ave voltas costelin. La mures es densa e la contrafortes es plana. Arcos de porte culmina comun con un timpan scultada, spesial de Cristo en gloria. Mures interna ia es porta comun frescos de senas de la Biblia

La arciteta gotica ia developa de la arciteta romanica en Frans en la sentneio 12 temprana e ia estende tra Europa, esente alterada en rejiones diferente. Lo ia dura en alga partes de Europa asta la sentenio 1500. La arciteta gotica, como videda en multa de la grande eglesas e catedrales de Europa, es distinguida par la usa de la volta puntida e la volta costelin. Plu tarda la volta costelin ia deveni multe complicada e ornal, xef en England, Espania e Europa este. La developa de contrafortes protendente e arcos apoiante ia permete abri la murones per es plu grande e la voltas plu alta. Colonas ia ave comun un grupo de palos per suporta la costelas e moldures a supra. Portas e fenetras ia ave arcos puntida. La portas ia es frecuente locada en portones rica siselida e ensricada par sculta nonstrata. La fenetras ia deveni plu grande e ia es completida con traseria suportante la vitro. La vitro colorida ia deveni un forma artal plu importante ca fresco en tota Europa eseta en Italia.

Lumina de manoscritos ia es un forma artal major en la eda medieval tarda. Ma manoscritas ia es copiada par mano, frecuente par monces laborante en la scriptoria en la moncerias. La libros cual ia es tal produia ia es frecuente luminada (decorada con imajes e bordas ornosa). Frecuente la letera comensal en un paje ia es luminada con color e senas peti. La stilo de decora ia developa cualias local, variante de la bordas floral e astrata, a vistas detaliosa e senas interior de la Tres Riches Heures de la Duc du Berry par la fratres Limbourg.

Poesia e musica ia es portada entre sites par musicores viajante nomida menestreles. Esta menestreles ta dona novas de tota Europa cuando ia viaja e ia conta naras e cantas. Un de la poemas germanica plu longa, Beowulf nara la mata de un bestia jigante ci ia pesta un vila. Otra de estas epicas ia es la Canta de Roland (basada en la ataca a la soldatos retro de Carlo la grande par la euscaras cuando Carlo la grande ia gida sua omes estra Espania).

Potia papal en la eda medieval

La papia ia es un instituida potiosa en la Europa medieval. Relijio ia permea tota la aspetas de la sosia e egal ia aplica a la re ca a un cultivor. En Euopa medieval la Pope ia es ajente de potia e reconsilior con un autoria spirital enorme en un eda do la esiste de sielo e inferno e la camino de cada un ia es costante esaminada. La cortia de la vive, maladias, mortalia enfantal e pesas ia ajunta a la preocupa con mori e la spirito eterna, fida ia es la medica de la mente medieval. La Popes ia asinia bispos, ia reseta desis, ia proclama leges canonal tra la mundo cristian. Los ia pote clama a crusadas contra cualce enemi de mundo cristian, levante armadas gidada par la res e cavalores de Europa.

Esta debe es videda en constesto considerante la natur de la potia papal. La potia real ia deriva de posese de tera, cual ia es esensal per leva armadas de cavalores. La papia ia ave min ativas direta, e per complia la asuntos, esta no ia pote es pasada par erita. Esta ia sinifia ce un Pape sirca de mori ia pote sola rici sua familia donante propria eglesas, tal estraente la ativas de la corte papal en loca de grandi los. Donce, la Pope ia debe depende de otra formas de potia, e sua autoria spirital ia es sempre un alternativa a control teritorial direta.

La Pope ia atenta tra metodos political controla Europa. El ia presa multa res per ce los loca sua bispos en ofisias nonrelijiosa potiosa. En responde a esta la res european ia deside pone sua propre bispos en poses relijial en un posede nomida asinia de eglesores (investitura). La imperor Henrico 4 ia vende multa bispias asta ce ia atenta despone Gregorio 7. En responde Gregorio 7 ia esclui el e ia remete sua vasales de responsabilia a el. Henrico ia atenta mantei sua rena unida, ma contra un popla colerida e terorida par causa de sua spiritos, el ia vade a la monceria de Canossa en la Alpes per suplica la Pope remete el, parada estra la murones con pedes nuda en la neva ante Greogrio 7 ia sede e desapone sua esclui. En anios la POpe e la Santa Impero Roman ia disputa sur la asinia de eglesores asta la Pope Calisto 2 e la Santa Imperor Roman Henrico 5 ia esecuta la Acorda de Worms, ci ia dona a la Popa autoria per pone bispos en poses relijial e a la imperor la autoria per pone bispos en poses nonrelijiosa. Esta luta ci ia fini con la Acorda de Worms ia es conocesa como la la Controversa de Asinia de Eglesores.

La aspetas asteninte de Cristo ia es sempre ja comun en la vives de la cristianes, de San a San Fransesco de Assisi la instrspeta

La aspetas asteninte de Cristo ia es sempre ja comun en la vives de la cristianes, de San Augustino a San Fransesco la introspeta inteletal e la rejeta de luso ia atrae a aceles xercante es plu sirca a Jesus. Esta retira a un comunia comun ia esite en Asia sude-ueste en la nase de cristianisme. La seta iudiste ci ia asconde la Libros Rolada de la Mar Mor en cavas ia es sola un de la multe comunis asteninte dedicante se a la vive relijiosa. La periodo medieval ia vide la developa de ordinas asteninte basada sirca moncerias. Ordinas nova ia es formada per segue serta intendes relijiosa. San Benedito ia es la prima en comanda un camino en cual tota la ordina ta debe funsiona. La ordina benedictin ia segue rituos multe spesifada. Entre esta ia es tempos esata per cada prea; lo es sujestada ce esta ia gida a la develop de la orolojo sirca la tempo de la Consilio Cuatro de Laterano. La Consilio Cuatro de Laterano ia institui regulas per adora per tota la ordinas moncal. Esta regulas ia es basada en aceles de la sistersianes. Citaeux, la padre de la ordina sistersian ia uni toda la moncerias su un "Ordina", ma ance permete los ave sua cualias rejional propre. La monces no sola ia developa la politicas inteletal de la Europa medieval, ma ance ia aida entre siter per ofre comeda e servis a la povres.


Sosia en la eda medieval

La sindicatos, ci ia control ci ia pote o no ia pote labora en un profesa tra educa e integra vertical, ia es la prima forma de universias. Entre los ia es la universia de Salamanca, Paris e Bolonia. Scolastica, un filosofia de educa cual ia asentua la instrui de la Biblia e Aristotele, ia es la forma comun de educa. La Renase ia trae Umanisme e la artes liberal.

La sites ia comensa a formi un loca per la botecas e la sindicatos. La sites ia es nesesada como sentro per comersia e multa de la sites medieval famosa de Europa ia es portos. En estas sites, mone e capitalisme ia comensa a flori. En la nore, la gilder ia devenia un mone potiosa e cuasi unviersal. La europeanes ance ia reabri rutas de comersa nonativa con Xina e Asia sude-ueste. La Via de la Seda ia es traversada denova, e multe de la periodo de esplora e descovre de Europa ia intende trova vias plu rapida e fasil per vade a la este.

Avansas en cultiva ia es aparente. Campos ia deveni aradida par grilias grande de metal tirada par bestias. La europeanes ance ia comensa a lasa campos reposante per permete nurintes reveni a la solo de tera, tal comensante la conseta de alterna de cultiva. La sistemes de feudalisme e seniorisme ia crese con la nova metodos de cultiva. Feudalisme, la arma political de la sistem senioriste, ia organiza la sosia en un strutur piramidal, con seniores governante, e a su sua vasales. Un vasal ta reseta tera e, par intercambia, ta proteje e responde a aceles supre los. La seniorisme, la fini economical de la sistem, ia es la forma en cual esta proprias grande ies es manejada. La vasales ta cultiva la tera e ia comersia la gran a la senior per proteje, asede a reserva, un molin per mole la gran, e asede a fornos per forni pan produida de esta gran. Tal ia es furnida la comeda. An tal, farina molinida de gran medieval ia es frecuente bruta e dur per la dentes. La fonte e acua ia es frecuente contaminada, donce la gran ia es usada per fa ale cual ia es la beavida xef de la europeanes norde, contra ce la vino ia resta la eleje de la europeanes de sude.

La crises de la eda medievalEdita

Introdui

La eda medieval ia es un periodo de sirca mil anios de istoria; jeneral asetada como estendente de la cade de la Impero Roman (a fini la sentenio 5) asta la descovre de America en 1492. Esta periodo ia comensa con un declina de demografial en la fini de la Impero Roman, con poplas european diminuinte e multa sites e feudos rural abandonada. Un clima plu fria, maladias e disturbas political ia fa un rol en esta periodo cual ia vide la sivilia mediteranean clasica eclisida. Traversante Europa ia emerji sosias plu peti, localida e ibride combinante influis roman, cristian e germanica o celtica. En la sentenios 9 e 10 la poplas ia ateni sua minim, e Europa ia deveni xef rural e a alga grado un rejio retrogaradal. Comersia e aprende ia flori en la mundo muslim, Xina e Barat en esta mesma periodo. La armadas muslim ia concista Espania en la sentenios 7 e 8, ma ia es vinseda par la rena franco en 732 cuando los ia atenta entra en Frans.

La cambia de la milenio ia vide un crese e ativia renovida, cuando res e sites ia consolida sua autoria e ia comensa a repopli teras lasada vacua par la declina de Roma. Un clima plu calda pos 900 ia permete ce plu tera ta es usada per produi comeda. La sistem feudal de cultiva, do la campanianes ia es liada a sua feudos par obligas con la seniores local e la eglesa, ia furni un grado de stablia economical. Esta ia es aidada par la ariva a Europa de la colar de cavalo de Asia, cual ia aumenta la produis cultival a cuando permete ce la arados ta es gidada par cavalos, en loca de par un boves plu lenta. La site scomersial ia flori en England, Frans en Nederland. La gidores deutx ia envia a monces e campanianes a clari la bosces e coloni Europa este e la Baltica. La sites-stato de Italia norde ia ave plu ricia e influe. La Espania muslim ia deveni un sentro de aprende e culture do cristianes, muslimes e iudis ia coesiste en amia relativa. An con multa geras local e disputas entre cavalores, la alta eda medieval, de 1000 a 1250, ia vide un crise de abitores e un ricia sufisinte per construi grande catedrales e envia armadas european estra la continente a la crusadas.

A pos 1250, stania demografial ia emerji. La crese de la cuanti de abitores ia lenti o ia para cuando la limitas de la cultia medieval ia es atenida. Disputas major entre renas potiosa, como la Gera de Sento Anios entre England e Frans, ia deveni plu frecuente. La eglesa cristian, ante secur en sua autoria spirital, ia ave fendes e un froda finansial cresente. La anio 1348 ia vide un desaste cuando la pesta bubonal (la "Mori Negra") ia entra en Italia, portada par barcones de Asia. Lo ia estende tra la continente en tre anios matante un tri de tota la europanes. Multa ia crede ce lo ia es la fini de la mundo preside par la cristianisme. Junta a sua dole, la pesta ia trae ruina economial, levante la custa de labora e preveninte la continua de la sistem feudal vea, en cuando campanianes survivente ia despeta sua elejes.

La 150 anios seguente ia cambia Europa de un loca de feudos, su un control eglesal e real laxe en un coli de statos nasional bebeta ma plu unida. La vilas ia deveni sentro de resiste e disenti de la autorias real e eglesal. La vea influis de cavalores e nobiles ia declina, e la gidores ia realinia con la burjesia e la mercatores, un clase plu rica. La emerji de la primador e la estende de alfabetisme ia aumenta la disputas relijiosa e political en multa paises. En 1500, Cristoforo Colombo ia traversa la mar a la Mundo Nova, e Martin Lutero ia es sirca a defia la autoria de la Papia Roman e sua direto de premia con esenta de pecas par mone. Esta developas ia abre la eda moderna de la istoria, e ia fini con la eda medieval.

Alga instituidas moderna ave sua radises en la eda medieval. La conseta de statos-nasion con un governa sentral forte nase de la consolida de potias par alga res de la eda medieval. Esta res ia crea cortes real, asinia xerifes, crea armadas real, e ia comensa a colie impostas -tota la consetas sentral a la governa moderna. Un esemplo xef es la rena franses, gidada par la dinastia capetian de 987 asta la sentenio 14 temprana. La nobiles provinsial franses e sua casteles e cavalores ia es traida su control real en esta tempo, e la uni nasional ia es beneficada. Reversada, Deutxland, ci ia ave potiosa res en la sentenio 10 e en la comensa de la 11, ia ave un serie de disputas political en la alta eda medieval entre la gidores e la eglesa, cual ia debili la coere nasional e ia fa sende la seniores local a locas de grande influe.

En la eda medieval, la res orijinal ia clama la Parlamentos per esplica sua politicas e demanda mone. Parlamentos a esta tempo ia representa la tre clases coletiva — eglesores, nobiles e mercatores — no individuas.

La idea de governa limita ance apare, defiante la idea tradisional en acel tempo ce la governores ia ave tota la potia (como la imperores roman o la faraones egiptian). La aveni plu sustantial ia es en 1215, cuando la nobiles de England ia espresa sua diretos contra la re John en la Magna Carta. En ajunta, la idea de parlamentos, como esplicada a supra, ia apare, e la natur resiproca de la contratas feudal e seniorial ia furni la fundas per la conseta de contrata sosial.

En ajunta, la formi de burocratia governal ia comensa en esta tempo, cuando la consilios real de la res medieval ia evolui a la departamentos moderna de la governa.

A fini, la regula de benes e servis ia deveni plu importante en la eda medieval, cuando la sindicatos ia proteje la consumores de produidas povre.

La pensores de la Renase e la Lumina tende regarda la eda medieval con despeta, ma la eda medieval ia es esensal per fa la labora fundal per la tempos futur.

Formas nova de arte

Amba depinta e leteratur ia reseta un esplode nova de vive cuando la eda medieval temprana ia fini.

Depinta

Giotto comensa a espresa la forma umana plu realiste. An su sua formas pare primitiva comparada con acel de la artiste de la Renase, el ia es la prima en atenta retrae la realisme de la arte roman. El ia comensa developa tecnicas de perspetiva en depintas per ateni profonda. La plu de sua arte ia es en la forma de frescos de jeso en la murones de eglesas e eglesetas.

Leteratur

Cuando la prestijia de la Papia ia comensa a declina, la consensia nasional ia comensa a aumenta; esta nasionalisme ia apare en leteratur scriveda en linguas nasional o demotica, en loca de latina. Esta usa de demotica ia abri a ce cualias cultural local ta pote es espresada de forma plu natural. Esta leteratur ia permete senti plu realosa e uman a la lejores, e es per causa de esta ce obras como La Naras de Canterbury es considerada representas de vive en la tempo en cual ia es scriveda.

An si la alfabetisme de nonrelijiosas ia aumenta como resulta de la scrives demotica, la sosia ia ancora basada sur la cultur oral.

Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)

 
Dante Alighieri - detalia de la fresco par Luca Signorelli, en la egleseta de San Brizio, en la catedral de Orvieto (1499-1502).

Dante Aligheri ia nase en 1265 en Firenze, Italia. Sua familia ia no es rica ma ia es considerada un linia aristocratal. El ia es enseniada para Brunetto Latini, ci ia ensenia a el la arte libreal clasica, incluinte latina e elinica antica. Antal, Dante abrasa sua lingua demotica e ia comensa scrive "La comedia divin en sua dialeto toscan. Oji, el teni un loca en la istoria como la autor un en fa esta. Alighieri ia considera sua obra un comedia par causa de la diferes entre la stilo de scrive italian e la grande trajedia latina. Sua epica en tre partes ia critica sarcasmosa la Eglesia e ia comenta sur varia individuas istorial e contempora. La figur la plu importante es estas es Vergilio, la poesior latina, ci ia ave un rol en la gida de Dante tra la vive pos mori. La emosias personal de Dante a multe persones es ance evidente en sua obra. En la strato la plu profonda de la inferno es Bonifasio 8, un Pape de ci la politica de estende el ia oposa. Cada parte de la poema representa grados de salva: la Enferno, la Purgatorio e la Paradiso. La Enferno inclui multe arcetipos de la enferno como la rio Stix e la navetor Xaron ci naveti la spiritos de la mores traversante la rio.

Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400)

La Naras de Canterbury par Chaucer, en colie de naras, ia esposa la interesas mundal de un varia de engleses. Esta colie de naras ia es locada en un strutur basada en un viaja a Canterbury como peregrina a la santeria de San Tomas Becket. La naras es naras inidividual de tresdes persones de esta peregrina. La nara varia de un relata romantica a familia a relijio, furninte un talia traversal de la sosia en acel tempo. Un grande persento de la popla, e donce un grande persento de la carateres, ia pare plu focada en la plaser material ca en sua spiritos eterna. La Naras de Canterbury es ance usosa per studia la demotica engles en acel tempo. Lo es un esemplo clasica de engles media cual la linguistes studiante England medieval e moderna temprana continua usante asta oji.

La Gera de Sento Anios (1337-1453)

 
Joana de Arco ia gida un armada franses contra le engleses en la Gera de Sento Anios e ia susede en para la avansa engles. El ia es caturada par la engleses en cuando ia es en batalia e ia es portada a Rouen per sua prosede legal. Esta depinta de 1824 par Paul Delaroche mostra el esente interogada par la cardinal de Winchester.

La Gera de Sento Anios ia es un gera multe complicada, lutada entre Frans e England (con la interveni de ves a ves de otra paises), tra tre disputas xef. spesial, la nasiones ia luta per la control de la rejio de Gasconia en Frans, rebelas suportada par Britan en viletas franses de produi de vestes e la reclama engles de la trono franses a pos la mori de Carlo 4.

La gera, orijinal comensada par un disputa sur ci ta deveni la Re de Frans a pos l mori de Carlo 4, ia deveni rapida en un gera complicada e multifasetal. La re Eduardo 3 e sua fio Eduardo, comun conoseda como "La Re Negra", ia invade Aciten, un rejio enorme en la sude-ueste de Frans clamada par England. Con la pasa de tempo, la res de England e Frans ia envolve se en multa operas, variante de la gera interna en Bres, disputas comersial en lo ce ta deveni Beljia, an un gera en Castilla. La tre batalias xef de la Gera de Sento Anios (Crecy, Poitiers e Agincourt), ia es vinses engles resonada, cadente la flor de la nobilia franses en cada batalia. An tal, an si la engleses ia gania cada batalia xed e multa peti, un England relativa provre ia nunca pote domina Frans sude, la plu rica rejio de Frans, cual a fini ia gida a la perde de la gera par England.

La asende de la sites e la comersia

De la sentenio 6 a la 10, on ave poca sentros de comersia e sola clases peti de mercatores en Europa. La comersia de distantia longa ia es frecuente sentrida en la benes de luso per la nobilia e la elites de la eglesa, e ia es arbitrada par mercatores viajores como la suris o la iudis. La artisania ia es fada local en feudos. La popla ia no es grande sufisinte per suporta plu developas economial, e la atacas vicing e arabi ia fa la vias de comersia perilosa.

En la eda medieval alta de 1000-1500, la comersia de distantia longa ia deveni plu secur e tal plu profitosa. Como resulta, la artisanes ia move a la sentros cresente de comersia, obligante a la seniores e serfos a oteni sua benes de esta sentros de comersia. La vilas ia forma alias e federas urban, o comunias legal, cual ia labora junta per luta contra la crimines o trata la monarcas e nobiles. La sindicatos ance ia apare, permetente un supravide coletiva de la consernas -la labora ia es fada par persones fidable, e la sindicatos ia dona educa profesal. La spirito de la economia medieval, an tal, ia preveni compete.

La asende de la vilas ia ave un efeto librinte. Los ia forsa la seniores ofre termas plu libre a la campanianes. Frecuente, la campanianes ia gania sua libria par intercambia per un paia anial a la senior permetente un numero grande de persones move de laboras cultival a industrial en la vilas. Esta ia tra aselera economial. Vera, un spesie de revolui industrial artisan ia aveni en la sentenios 12 e 13, spesial en Nederland do la sentros grande de fabrica de tela como Ghent e Bruges ia cumula multe ricia e ia stimula crese en Europa Ueste jeneral. La Hansa, un alia en la Mar Norde entre sites comersial norsce e baltica, ia emerji en esta periodo, abrinte la recursos scandinavian per furni Europa con pelo, lenio, sira de abea e pexes.

La eda medieval alta ia vide la europeanes reveni de la Crusada en Asia sude-ueste, do los ia developa preferes per benes no produida a casa. Esta revenintes a casa ia introdui le europeanes medieval a la spises esotica, seda, frutas, drogas e otra produis de la este per prima ves. Sites sirca la Mediteraneo ia partisipa en la comersia cual ia developa, con Venezia deveninte la porto la plu rica de entra de benes asian, la base de cual Marco Polo e sua acompaniores ia parti en sua viaja a Xina.

Crese de monarcias nasional

En esta mesma periodo, la monarcias ia comensa a crese, e como resulta la poplas ia comensa vide la crea de nasiones-stato unida. La res ia envia comandas per esecuta e ia comensa a institui la cortes real, e los ia vive de la dinero de la feudos cual los ia posese e de la paias de la vasales. La consilio real de la re ia es un grupo de vasales ci ia consela a la re sur asuntas de stato, cual ia resulta en la crea de la departes fundal de la governa. Cuando la representores de la sites ia comensa a asembla, esta ia es la formi temprana de la parlamentos fundal.


Esta parlamentos ia no ave la capasia de comanda a la re, ma ia pote cexa e la re ia pote ata segun los. Esta ia es un spesia fundal de legi.

En ajunta, la formi de esta parlamentos ia gida a la institui de la tre statos: la stato un, cual ia inclui la eglesores; la stato du, formida par la nobiles e la propiores de tera; e la stato re, de la burjeses de la sites constituidas. England ia ave du parliamentos: la House of Lords e la House of Commons. La House of Commons ia permete a la propiores de tera plu peti deveni membros.

La mori negra

 
Estende de la Mori Negra en Europa.

La pesta bubonal o mori negra, ia ariva a Europa en 1347. Comunicada prima par pulgas e ratas, la bateria Y. Pestis ia ruina la continente, matante un tri de la popla en 1351. On crede ce la bateria ia es endemica entre la rodentes en la stepes asian, e ia salta a la umanas en Europa con grande nosivia. La comensa de la maladia ia es subita, la sintomes ia es febre, debilia, delirio, maladia de pulmon e inflas de color oscur (bubones) en la areas de axila, colo e inguin. Multe frecuente, la infetadas ia mori en un o du dias, incluinte individuas joven e ci ia es sana.

Causas de la pesta

La revive de comersia e intercambia ia aumenta la potensial per la estende de maladias comunicable. Europa no ia sufri un pesta continental de la pesta de Justiniano en 535, e la popla nonesposada de 1348 no ia erita imunia. An si ricia ia crese, nuri e ijenia per la plu parte de europeanes ia es multe povre seguente normas moderna, diminuinte resiste imune en jeneral. Multe adultes ia sufri cuando ia es enfantes en la Fame Grande de 1316-1321, cuando anios de clima fria e umida ia causa ce la granes ia fali tra la continente. Esta esperia en enfantia ta pote compromete sua resiste a la pesta basilo plu tarda.

On crede ce la pesta ia es traeda a Europa en la ataca mongol sur Kaffa (en la Mar Negra) cuando la maladia ia forsa la mongoles abandona sua ataca, los ia lansapetri alga vitimes de la pesta a la site ante abandona. Esta ia deveni un pratica comun per la europeanes en la aseja a casteles. De ala, mercatores ia estende la maladia a Constantinopoli, do ia estende tra Europa, prima par barcon a portos mediteranean como Messina e Genova, e pos par tera en tota dirijes.

Un manca de lenio per combustable, par causa de talia la forestas per cultiveria, ia resulta en la clui de la banierias cual ia depende de arde lenio per caldi la acua. Spesial en inverno, sola la ricas ia pote permete a se bani. Esta ia contribui a la state ijenial povre. La sites ia es multe mal desiniada per ijenia. La z sitadanes normal ia dejeta dejetadas a via cual ia atrae ratas, e donce pulgas. La persones ia vive multe prosima con lunlotra, cual ia sinifia ce pulgas ia ave poca area per viaja per infeta otra person.

Multe cosas ia es culpada de es la causa de la pesta, spesial la iudis ci ia es la portaculpas xef. An la gidores de la sites ia clama ce membros de la comunia iudi ia veneni la furni de acua, o ia estende balsam venenosa en la portas de la site.

Lo es importante comprende ce la europeanes ia no comprende la causa vera de la pesta. Per los la pesta ia es un maldise traeda a los par sua manca de relijiosia, o par la falis de la eglesa, par la poplas iudis de la sites o an la desinia de la stelas. Otras an ia atribui la pesta a mal aira. Per luta contra lo, los ia porta telas de testa o bolsas de "bonodorintes" cual ia pote teni sirca sua nases cuando los ia nesesa fa lo (la opina de la scola medical xef de Europa, en la Universia de Paris, ia es ce la eruta ia es causada par un alinia astrolojial nonfavorable en 1345). Mancante la fatos vera, multe atentas de la europeanes de supresa la maladia ia aida a sua estende.

Respondes a la pesta

Alga persones ia crede ce la pesta ia es un puni par Dio contra pecores. La autoflajelores ia apare como resulta. Los ia bate los mesma per sangui, ia prea prea per pardona, e ia demanda sua congregas repenti. Vagante tra Europa Sentral (colpada par la pesta) multe grupos de autoflajelores ia deveni banditos. La sites e la seniores feudal ia proibi los o defeta los. En ajunta, violentia contra iudis ia eruta, e folas ia mata ci ia refusa batiza. Multe iudis ia es forsada abandona sua casas.

Dotores medical en Europa medieval ia usa un misca de metodos de atenta e era e fontes elinica o roman per cura sua pasientes. Sin la conose de microorganismes, o la rol de ratas e pulgas en estende la maladia, la dotores medical ia no pote cura la vitimes infetada o limita la estende. Como resulta, la maladas ia survive o ia mori seguente la stato jeneral de sua sania, e cualce resiste jenetical los ia aveni ave.

Resultas de la pesta

La moris masosa la dona plu oportunes per avansa en sosia, e como resulta la propriores ia fa plu sedes per oteni cultivores luores nova. La furni de laborores cade, resultante en aumenta de salario de la laborores. Un demanda de gran basa ia resulta en la cade jeneral de la custa de gran. La nobiles ia perde un parte de sua ricia, e ia depende plu dependente de monarcas e gera per revenu e potia.

En ajunta, la pesta ia resulta en la boni de la niveles de vive per la campanianes e la popla laborante urban. La campanianes e artisanes aora ia ave plu lusos e un dieta plu bon, e la produi ia cambia de fabriceria per un mercato coletiva a un mercato lusosa peti. An tal, la nonegalia monal ia crese, car min persones ia posese plu mone.

A fini, la europeanes ia vide ce prea ia no cura la pesta, e ce an la gidores de la eglesa ia mori. Esta ia causa la popla perde fida en la eglesa e ia abri la porta a multe promoves relijial nova e local cual ante ia es supresada, un fator cual ia aida prepara la veni de la Reformi un sentenio a pos.

Defias a la autoria spirital a la fini de la eda medieval

La eda medieval ia furni multa de la fundas de la Reforma de la sentenio 16. En esta tempo, la eglesia ia furni ordina, stablia e un armatur per la mundo medieval. La funda plu esensal de la vive medieval ia es salva -e la ojeto de vive ultima per tota la persones ia es oteni salva. Cuando la persones ia perde fida en la eglesa e sua capasia per furni salva, la eglesa ia comensa a perde sua control supra la popla.

Pesta

Como ante esplicada, la pesta ia contribui a la perde de fida de la persones en la eglesa. An tal, alga de la credores plu ardente ta regarda tal pesta como enviada par Dio per castiga la mundo per sua pecas. La eglesa ta ave un rol en acel idea per coraji un fida plu ardente e per ataca cualce disentor.

Moves erese e popla

Multe moves e persones ia defia la autoria de la eglesa en la fini de la eda medieval.

Spiritos libre

La spiritos libre ia crede ce la eglesa ia no sasia la nesesas spirital de la popla, e ia promove la misticisme, o la crede ce Dio e omes ave la mesma esense.

John Wycliffe (1328–1384)

John Wycliffe, un prete engles e profesor en Oxford, ia fundi la lolardisme. La lolardos ia razona ce la salva no ia debe veni tra la pape, e ce la re ia es superior e plu importante ca la pape e relijio. El ia dise ce leje la Biblia e prea ia es importante per la relijio, no la comprende de la pretes. El ia es la prima en tradui la Biblia a un lingua demotica en loca de usa la varia latina. El ia critica la ricia de la eglesa e de la eglesores.

Jan Hus (1369-1415) en Boemia

Jan Hus, creante la husistes, ia atenta reali reformas como aceles atentada par Wycliff en England. Hus ia es un prete en Bohemia cuando el ia aprende la ensenias de Wycliff. En cuando la popla sirca el ia pensa ce los ia es erese e ia proibi los, Jan ia pensa ce los ia debe es enseniada. Tra sua varia desacrodas e ativias, Jan ia conclui ce la ia eglesa ia es malida e ia lasa sua propre pais per scrive Sur la Eglesa, un obra cual ia critica la forma en cual lo ia es gidada. Sua ensenias ia apela la folas, e el ia developa un grupo de seguores conoseda como husistes. En 1413, Hus ia es invitada a un consilio cual ia es creada per reformi la eglesa, ma cuando el ia ariva el ia es arestada par sua ideas. La prosede legal ia es un formalia, car el ia es culpable de la comensa. Hus ia es ardeda en un palo en 6 julio 1415.

Froda en la Eglesa

La vasta froda en la eglesa ance iagida a duta e interoga sur sua autoria. La ricia suprafluente de la elgesores e la frecuentia con cual los ia ave concubinas e enfantes estra sposi ia es un conserna major. La popla ia ance demanda sur la vende de favores, o la reseta de paga per perdona popla de sua pecas; netisme, simonia, o la vende de ofisias de la eglesa, pluralisme, o reteni multiple ofisias eglesal, e la luso estrema de la catedrales.

La Grande Fende

 
Allegiances during the Great Schism of 1378.

En 1305, la re de Frans ia invita la Pape a move la seja de la Eglesa estra Roma, un site pestada par partitos local lutante entre los, a Avignon en la Vale de Rhone. Pos la reveni a papia a Roma con la Pape Gregorio 11 en 1377, elejes ia es asemblada per la Pape nova. La sitadanes de Roma, demandante la eleje de un Pape italian, ia forsa la cardinales eleje Urbano 6. La cardinales franses disentinte reasembla en Avignon per eleje sua propre Pape, Clemente 7. La Papes franses de la Fende Grande, refereda par la istoristes como antipapes, ia ave potia papal en alga rejiones de Europa, e per 39 anios on ia ave du papes. En un atenta de reconsilia esta fende, on ia ave un confere en Pisa per eleje un Pape nova, ma lo no ia pote depone ambos papes, resultante en un divide en tres de la papia. No volente abandona, la confere de Pisa ia eleje otra Pape, con la mesma resulta.

A fini la Consilio de Constanz (1414-1418) ia demanda la renunsia de la tre Papes. Con la suporta de la Imperor Roman Santa, la tre Papes ia es desponeda e Martin 5 ia es elejeda pape, fininte la Fende Grande. La Consilio de Constanz ia ata contra Joan Wycliffe e Joan Hus, du reformistes en la Eglesa Catolica.

RenaseEdita

IntroduiEdita

 
Vitruvian Man by Leonardo Da Vinci

La Renase italian de la sentenios 13 e 14 ia estende se tra la resta de Europa, representante un tempo cuando Europa ia xerca conose de la mundo antica e ia sorti de la Eda Oscur. Un interesa renovida en siensa e esperimenta, e un foca en la importa de vive bon en la presente en contrasta con la vive pos mori como promoveda par la Eglesa. La Renase ia trae un esplode en arte, poesia e arciteta. Tecnicas e stilos nova ia developa cuando la formas artal ia move a via de la stilos plu fria e oscur de la eda medieval. Esta periodo, seguente esta punto de vista, representa Europa emerjinte de un periodo longa de nonprogresa e la asende de comersia e esplora. La Renase italian es frecuente eticetida como la comensa de la epoca "moderna".

An tal, lo es importante reconose la instituidas moderna nonlimitada cual ia ave sua radises en la eda medieval, como la nasiones-stato, parlamentos, governa limitada, burocratias e regula de benes e servis.

OrijinesEdita

En la tempo seguente a la Peste nigra, cual ia diminui en coaveni en 1351. la fida en la potia e la importa de la Eglesa ia desende. La multia de moris (sirca 25-30 milion entre 1347 e 1351) ia sinia la nesesa de un revive en are, educa e sosia en jeneral. Un diminui en la laborores ia gida a esije aumenta de salarios, e tal revoltas ia aveni en varia paises tra Europa, xef en Deutxland, Frans e Italia.

La Renase ia comensa en Italia norde en 1300 temprana.

An si ia no es nonevitable, varia fatores -nasionalisme (par causa de un orgolo aumentada en la dias de Roma temprana), la crusadas, revive de comersia- ia aida a reali reformi. En tota partes de Italia (Firenze, Genoa, Roma, Napoli e Milano esata) eruditas ia revive sua studias de leteratur latina e elinica temprana, derivada de manoscritos arcivida.

Esaminante esta obra temprana, los ia persepi ce la cultur ia es esensal per vive un vive sinifiosa, e educa (spesial istoria) ia es importante per comprende ambos la mundo de ier e la tempos moderna, como ance per intui la futur. Tal, la eruditas italian ia demanda per un 'Renase' en educa e cultur european.

Ordina sosial e cambia culturalEdita

Divides sosial en FirenzeEdita

La abitores de Firenze ia es parte de un de la cuatro clases sosial xef. Esta ia inclui la grandi (la grande), la gidores de la site; la popolo grosso (popla grande), la mercatores capitaliste (esta ia defia la grandi per potia), la comersiores peti, e la popolo minuto, la clases economial plu basa, como la povres, ci, an si los ia es un tri de la popla de Firenze, vera no ia ave ricia[1].

La divide de sosia ia propensa la disputa, e a fini ia resulta en la Revolta Ciompi susedosa de 1378. La Revolta de Ciampi ia es un de la provres, ci ia revolta par causa de la feudos constante entre la grandi e la popolo grosso, la anarcia de la pesta negra, e la colasa de la bancos, cual ia fa la popolo minuto an plu povre. Pos alga tempo, la Revolta Ciompi ia gida a un rena tra cuatro anios par la popolo minuto, asta cuando Cosimo de' Medici ia comensa governa en 1434 e ia restora la stablia de Firenze.

La familiaEdita

La pesta ia resulta en laboras plu favorable per femes, an si la partisipa jeneral de la femes en la vive publica ia varia con la clase e la rejion. La duples sposida frecuenta ia labora junta, e la plu omes e femes ia resposi rapida si sua spos ia mori.

Clases basaEdita

A la comensa de la Renase, la limita entre la povres e la criminales ia es multe magra. La sites plu grande ia ave problemes con ganges organizada. La suposada "sosia desente" ia trata le elementas marjinal de sosia con suspeta e odia grande.

Tempos difisil per comersiaEdita

La Gera de Sento Anios ia resulta en diversa governas en Europa emprestante multe mone cual no ia pote paia. Tal, lo ia es min probable ce la mercatores ia risca, e en loca ia investi en obligas finansial de la governa. La resulta de esta ia es un descrese jeneral en comersia.

La nase de umanismeEdita

 
Pico della Mirandola, 1463-1494, one of the most famous humanists of the Renaissance. By an unknown artist, in the Uffizi, Florence.

En acelt tempo, Italia ia es la sentro de cultur en Europa. Scrivores de clase media ia es apoiada par sponsoria nobil, e como resulta, en la comensa de la Renase la leteratur ia flori junta a la revive clasica. Esta resulta en la asende de umanisme, un promove inteletal cual ia defende la studia de la istoria e leteratur como la modo xef per identifia con la glorias de la mundo antica. Umanisme ia defende la aprende clasica e la partisipa ativa de la individua en la asuntas munisipal.

La eruditas de la Renase ia defende la conseta de "reveni a la fontes" atentante reconsilia la disiplinas de la fide cristian con la aprende antica/ En ajunta, la conseta de umanisme munisipal ia apare, cual ia defende partisipa en la governa. La sivilia ia es inspirada par la scrivedas de imperores roman, e a la fini de la sentenio 1400 la inteletosas ia ave un comanda de la lingua latina.

En la anios 1440, Johannes Gutenberg ia crea la primador con tipo movable. Esta revolui en comunica ia aida multe en la estende de la ideales de la Renase tra Europa, permetente la ideas es primida per sirculi coletiva, per ves prima en la istoria. Gutenberg ia es la prima european ci ia crea un primador con tipo movable, an si la xineses ia inventa esta tecnolojia multe ante.

La conseta renasal de la vive e de la rol de la om en la tera ia es plu secular ca en la pasada, ma en no modo ia es nonrelijiosa. On ia crede ce Dio cura sur persones sur tota e ce la plu bon de es umana es la volunta libre per eleje. La persones ia es selebrada, como la eruditas de la Renase ia razona ce la omes ia es fada a imaje de Dio, e ce on debe selebra nosa talentos e capasias donada par Dio. La persones ia crede ce la vive en la tera ia es valuada e ce la sitadanes ia debe compete per es la plu bon ce los pote es. La foca de la Renase ia es en la individua en loca de en la coletiva.

Umanisme italianEdita

Fransesco Petrarca (1304-1374) ia es un erudita e poesiste italian e un umaniste temprana. En sua sonetos, el ia crea la imaje de persones real con personalia, desvalidinte la conseti tipal medieval e la stereotipos de persones.

Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375) ia scrive La Decameron, un istoria corta sur la vives de persones vivente en la tempo de la Mori Negra. La libro foca en la respondes de la persones a la pesta en loca de la coleria de Dio. En esta senti, la libro no conserna relijio, ma la persones, un conseta relativa nova en acel tempo.

Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) ia es un erudita e filosofiste italian de la Renase. El ia scrive la "Parla sur la dinia de la om" cual ia deveni conoseda como "Declara de la Renase". En esta, el ia esplica ce la om ave potensial nonlimitada, e con sua volunta libre pote es cualce cosa el vole es. El ia razona ce la om debe usa sua capasias e no malspende los. A fini, el ia esplica ce la popla debe vive sua vive con virtua, o la cualia de es un om -forminte sua destina, usante tota sua oportunes, e laborante combatosa tra vive.

Geras relijial en EuropaEdita

IntroduiEdita

En la periodo entre 1524 e 1648, Europa ia es pestada par la geras de relijio. Lo es importante reconose, an tal, ce en cuando relijio ia es donada como la cusa de la gera, on ia ave multe otra causas. Esta ia inclui tera, mone e economia, potia political, recursos natural, e otras.

Esta geras ia inclui la Gera de Campanianes de 1525 en la Impero Roman Santa, la Gera de Smalcalda entre 1546 e 1555, un luta entre la Impero Roman Santa e la turces, la Reconcista de la espanioles contra la muslimes, la rebela husiste, e misionores e concistores contra la americanes orijinal.

GeraEdita

La luta relijial e la gera ia estende con la protestantisme. La dotrina nova radical en Deutxland ia fa esplode otra tensas sosial; revoltas campanial ia eruta en 1525, resultante en caoes e versa de sangue tra Austria, Suisia e Deutxland sude. Proopiores de tera rica ia es la ojeto de rebelores demandante egalia sosial e comparte la ricia en comun. La soldatos leal a la prinses gidante ia supresa la revolta, e la gidores ia es esecutada. Martin Luther, inisior xef de la Reforma, ia ataca la rebelores e ia defende la moves de la autorias per sutrae los.

Pas de AugsburgEdita

 
Henrico 4 de Bourbon de Frans par Frans Pourbus la minor.

La Pas de Augsburgo en 1555 ia declara la relijio de la prinse como la relijo ofisial de la rejio o pais (cuius regio, eius religio). Esta resulta en la aseta e tolera de luteeranisme en Deutxland par la catolicas. Cuando un gidor nova de un relijio diferente ia prende potia, multe persones ia debe cambia sua relijio. Multes ia trova esta reliste e la prosede no ia fini asta 1648.

En Europa norde (Deutxland norde, Nederland, e Frans) la clase media ia tende a es protestante, cual ia coresponde con sua etica e filosofia de labora. La campanianes ia cambia relijio per oteni labora.

Trata de Cateau-CambrésisEdita

Con la Trata de Cateau-Cambrésis en 1559, Espania e Frans ia acorda para luta con lunlotra per uni contra sua menasa comun: la protestantisme, xef la calvinisme, cual ia es considerada un plu pico de menasa ca la luteranisme.

Geras de relijio en FransEdita

En Frans, la gera interna relijiosa ia aveni entre 1562 e 1598 entre catolicas e protestantes. La corona usual ia apoia la catolicas ma a poca veses ia cambia lados, en cuando la nobilia ia es divideda entre ambos. La tre familias xef en la nasion ia compete per la controla de Frans. Esta familia ia es la familia Valois, cual ia governa e ia es catolica, la Bourbon, ci ia es formida par la ugonotes (protestantes franses) e Guise, ci ia es catolica. A fini, la familia Bourbon ia gania la gera, ma sua gidor Henrico Henry de Navara ia no pote es coronida car la site de Paris ia clui se. Henry ia aseja un anio Paris ante deside converti a catolicisme en 1593. La gera interna en Frans ia fini con la proclama de Nantes en 1598, cual ia reafirma ce catolicisme ia es la relijio ofisial en Frans, ma ia permetente un grado importante de libria relijial e political a la protestantes.

Henry 4 ia porte es descriveda como politique, o como un ci cura plu per la pas e ricia de sua nasion ca sur la tolera relijiosa.


Asolutisme en EuropaEdita

IntroduiEdita

La eda de asolutisme, esemplida par la "Re Sol" Louis 14 Bourbon de Frans, marca la asende de gidores en Europa ci ia ave potia asoluta sur sua nasiones. Mercantilisme a deveni la forma prima de economia de ace tempo, en la problemes relatada con relijio ia desapare en la geras european, aora cambiada par la problem de ecuilibra de potia.

Luis 14 (1638-1715), model de asolutismeEdita

 
Louis XIV
King of France and of Navarre
By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701)

Louis 14 de Bourbon de Frans ia ariva a potia en 1643. El ia sposi Maria Theresa, fia de Filipo 4. Esta potia ia veni de la fato ce en sua rena el ia manteni un Frans unida e potiosa.

Louis ia vole controla Nederland par causa de sua potia economial como resulta de comersia, car el ia vole crase la calvinistes e protestantes, e car el ia vole aumenta sua teritorio. En fato, el ia consela sua eritor, Louis XV "no imita me en mea gusta per gera". Sua politica atacante ia demanda finansia la armada european la plu grande de 280 000 omes.

Louis' wars resulted in horrendous results and poverty for the French people, and Protestants despised Louis. His economic policy was headed by Colbert, and his nation was a model in enacting mercantilism. During his reign, France became the dominant country in language, culture, and dress.

Louis allegedly famously declared, "L'etat c'est moi," or "I am the state," and his reign exemplifies absolutism. French Bishop Bossuet declared that it was the divine right of monarchs to rule, concluding that kings were God's anointed representatives on earth. Louis acted upon this belief, governing France as if he were placed on earth by God to rule.

Overall, Louis' foreign goals were territorial expansion and the spread of Catholicism.

Louis was highly successful in his domestic ambitions to achieve absolute power through centralized bureaucracy. He successfully controlled rebellious nobles and made himself the center of French power and culture. People depended upon him for advancement and thrived on his goodwill. Louis also established the palace at Versailles, which took fourteen years to construct. Versailles was modeled by every other major European country, and it successfully kept nobles occupied, distracting them from the desire to have a say in government. In 1685, Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes, stripping Calvinists of their rights in France.

La Gera de Pasa de Rena espaniolEdita

Filipo 4 de Habsburgo ia sposi Marianna Habsburgo de Osteraic, e ambos ia ave como fio Carlo 2, un gidor retardada fisical e mental. Car Carlo no ia pote ave desendentes, los ia lasa la deside ce sua seguor pos sua mori. Frans ia dise ce los ia es la melior clamante de la trono car los ia es catolica, forte e la dui-soror de Carlo ia es sposida con Louis 14. Como resulta, Carlo ia lasa la trono a Filipo 5 de Bourbon, la neto de Louis 14 e la gera ia eruta entre alia de Viliam 3 de Orange de Nederland contra Frans per manteni un ecuilibra de potia. La gera ia resulta en la pas de Utrecht en cual lo ia es desideda ce la gidor de Espania ia debe abandona su clama a la trono franses. Tal, Filipo ia es reconoseda como re de Espania, ma la uni con Frans e Espania no ia aveni. Espania ia perde sua teritorios en BEljia e Italia en la Pas de Utrecht, un fonte de resenti de la espanioles con su governa nova.

La ecuilibra de potia en politica esternaEdita

La ecuilibra de potia ia es un sistem en cual la nasiones european ia xerca manteni la autonomia nasional de tota la statos european. La conseta ia es ce tota nasiones european ia deve xerca preveni un nasion deveni potiosa, e tal governas nasional frecuente ia cambia sua alias per manteni la ecuilibra. La gera de pasa de rena espaniol ia marca la gera prima de cual la tema xef ia es la ecuilibria de potia. Esta ia marca un cambia importante, car la potias european no ia ave plu la escusa de la gera relijial. Tal la gera de tredes anios ta es la ultima eticetida como gera relijiosa.

La economia de mercantilismeEdita

The overall purpose of mercantilism was that mercantilist policies enriched the economy, thus resulting in prosperous citizens, higher tax revenues, and in the end funds for military and war. During the 1600s, mercantilist policies were adopted by most European nations.

Cualias xefEdita

By exporting more goods than your country imports, gold and silver will flow into your country. The government should found colonies, gaining raw materials, and then the nation should sell finished goods back to the colony. The government should impose high external tariffs, helping to keep competing goods from other nations out and to protect native manufacturing, thus raising money for the government. The government should eliminate all internal tariffs, keeping goods flowing freely within the country. Finally, the nation should become self-sufficient in all of its needs.

La Asende de Prusia (1701-1740)Edita

Prussia became the power in northern Germany, as opposed to Austria which lay in the south. The issue of German Dualism arose - specifically asking the question, which of the two would unite Germany?

Problemes en la asende de PrusiaEdita

Prussia faced a number of problems during its rise to power. One major issue was that Prussia was divided into three sections that needed to be united - the central part, Brandenburg, which contained Berlin; the eastern part, called Prussia, and western territories. In addition, Prussia had few natural resources, a much smaller population than the other major powers in Europe, and was still suffering from the effects of the Thirty Years' War.

Prusia asendeEdita

Under Frederick William "The Great Elector", Prussia became highly militaristic, with all aspects society entirely bent toward the needs of the army. He doubled the army to 80,000 soldiers. It was still small compared to other powers, but it was the most well-trained and the most efficient on the continent.

Frederick William strengthened the Prussian army by enlisting Prussian citizens rather than mercenaries in what was known as the Canton system (not to be confused with the Chinese trade system). He cut all royal expenses, especially court life, and imposed high taxes on the lower and middle class. State service was required for the nobility, known as Junkers, and they frequently served as army officers while the peasants served as infantry. There was very strict social stratification. Government-subsidized textile industries resulted in standardized uniforms, and all members of the military were also required to maintain standardized hair and facial hair. Frederick established the first efficient bureaucracy in Europe, and was especially religiously tolerant, welcoming 20,000 Huguenot refugees after Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes.

Stuart England 1603-1714Edita

In 1603, Elizabeth I died without leaving an inheritance and her nephew, James VI of Scotland (who was also the son of Mary Queen of Scots who was ordered to be executed under Elizabeth's orders in 1589) took the English throne as James I, making both Scotland and England ruled under the same monarch, and establishing the Stuart dynasty. However the two nations were anything but united - they each had different religions, laws, courts, parliaments, churches and customs, not forgetting a 700 year old mistrust and hatred.

James I 1603-1625Edita

James I Stuart ruled as an absolute monarch, who despised Parliament. He went as far as to dissolve parliament, and ruled without the voice of the people. He declared that the monarch was God's Lieutenant, his emissary, and reigned supreme over the land. He began the absolute rule of England, followed by his family for the next several generations. James advocated the divine rights of kings, and in turn wrote a book advocating the divine right of kings entitled The Trew Law of Free Monarchies in 1598.

Charles I 1625-1649Edita

When Charles took the throne, he inherited a very angry Parliament, but he shared his father James I's beliefs in autocracy. He appointed Archbishop Laud to make the Anglican church more ceremonial, like Catholicism, instilling fears among the populace about a return to Catholicism.

In 1628 the Parliament issued the Petition of Right. This document declared that Charles could not enact taxes without Parliamentary consent. Charles proceeded to levy the ship money tax without Parliamentary consent, ordering all towns to pay taxes to support the English navy. This angered most of the populace as ship money was traditionally paid by coastal towns. The Parliament of 1640, dominated by Puritan landowners, fired Laud and repealed taxes imposed by Charles. These occurrences resulted in the outbreak of the English Civil War.

English Civil War 1642-1649Edita

The war pitted supporters of the Parliament against supporters of the king, and at stake were both political power and control of English economics. The war also pitted Puritans, known as "roundheads," against Anglicans, or "cavaliers." The supporters of Parliament were led by Oliver Cromwell.

Other movements sprang up during this time, including Baptists, Quakers, and diggers, seekers, and ranters, who equated the clergy with nobles.

Charles I was captured, and members of Parliament were torn. Presbyterians opposed the killing of the king, while Independents advocated the regicide, or the killing of the king. In "Pride's Purge," Cromwell forcibly removed all members of Parliament who opposed the killing of the king.

The Governments of CromwellEdita

Afterwards, Cromwell formed a new government called the Commonwealth, which lasted from 1649 until 1653. This government was a democratic republic. However, in 1653, Cromwell formed the Protectorate, which was effectively a military dictatorship. He created the New Model Army, a paid force of devoted Puritans. His reign involved very strict laws, including no playing cards nor dancing. He, like many English monarchs, found Parliament difficult to control, it was when he disbanded Parliament, the only English Constitution was written, "Instruments of Government."

Stuart Restoration and Charles II StuartEdita

In 1660, Cromwell resigned, resulting in the restoration of Charles II Stuart and thus the Stuart line to the throne. Charles II is commonly known as the "Merry Monarch" because he engaged in highly festive court life and encountered many mistresses. He did, however, drive England deeply into debt, and continued a war with the Dutch started under Cromwell from the 1650s until the 1670s. He practised mercantilist policies. During Charles II's reign, England encountered the Great Plague in 1665 and the Great Fire in 1666.

In 1670, Charles signed the Secret Treaty of Dover with Louis XIV, secretly pledging France and England as allies to work together to return England to the Catholic Church. In 1673 he signed the Declaration of Indulgence, which stated that Catholics could hold political and military office. Parliament responded that same year, issuing the Test Act, that stated that citizens would have to profess Anglicanism to join the Parliament and military by taking Anglican communion.

James II 1685-1688Edita

 
James II Stuart of England

James II, an overtly Catholic monarch, took the throne in 1685. With his first wife he bore two daughters, Mary and Anne, who were both Protestant, but with his second wife he bore a son, James, who was baptised Catholic. He upset Parliament at his demand to repeal the Test Act, and instituted the Declaration of Indulgences, which allowed for freedom of worship. Angry Protestants would call in William the Stadholder and Mary to bail them out.

Glorious Revolution of 1688Edita

Out of fear of James' open Catholicism and the birth of a male Catholic heir, Parliament invited Mary Stuart and William Stuart of Orange to rule England in 1688. Known as the Glorious Revolution or Bloodless Revolution because it was peaceful, William and Mary took the throne and signed the Bill of Rights. The bill guaranteed that the king would call Parliament every three years and not dismiss them, and that taxation and war must be approved by Parliament. England was no longer an absolute monarchy but rather a constitutional monarchy.

In 1701, Parliament passed the Act of Settlement, stating that all future monarchs of England must be Protestant above all other characteristics.

Queen Anne Stuart and the End of the Stuart LineEdita

Queen Anne ruled from 1702 until 1714, and issued the Act of Union in 1707, creating Great Britain by combining Wales, Scotland, and England. Under her, the House of Commons took dominance in Parliament. When she died in August 1714, she was succeeded by George I, the first of the Hanoverian line to rule in Britain. The expansion of parliamentary power at the expense of the Crown that had taken place since 1688 would continue under the Hanoverian monarchs, with the first Prime Minister, Sir Robert Walpole, taking office in 1721. By the accession of George III in 1760, the Crown had very little ability to influence national politics, and largely left the formation of governments to the parties that were slowly evolving in Parliament.

La Republica NederlandesEdita

Cultur e economiaEdita

 
POseses nederlandes.

Per un periodo en la sentenio 1600 nomida la "eda oro nederlandes", la nederlandes ia es la gidores comersial, finansial e maral de Europa. Los es ance conoseda per crea un de la sosias la plu urban e tolerante en Europa. amsterdam ia deveni un sentro de comersia, xef par causa de la saca de Antwerp, e la Banca de Amsterdam ia gida tota la mundo european en campo bancal.

Como resulta de sua comersia, la nederlandes ia es la nasion la plu rica. On ia ave un reconose vasta de la artes, e alga de la artistes baroca la plu famosa ia es nederlandes, como Vermeer, Rembrandt e Reubens. La sosia nederlandes ia promove libria de espresa e tolera relijial, con un estende larga de relijios de catolicistess a ateas. On ia ave un burjesia grande e firma instituida, e un sistem eselente de educa. a fini, la nederlandes ia ave un republica confederative con multe libria per autogoverna de sua provinses en cuando la plu parte de paises european ancora ia ave rejimes asolutiste.

Overseas ColoniesEdita

The Dutch East India Company began immediately to prise away the string of coastal fortresses that at the time comprised the Portuguese Empire. The settlements were isolated, difficult to reinforce if attacked, and prone to being picked off one by one, but nevertheless the Dutch only enjoyed mixed success in its attempts to do so. Amboina was captured from the Portuguese in 1605, but an attack on Malacca the following year narrowly failed in its objective to provide a more strategically located base in the East Indies with favourable monsoon winds. The Dutch found what they were looking for in Jakarta, conquered by Jan Coen in 1619, later renamed Batavia after the Latin name for Holland, and which would become the capital of the Dutch East Indies. Meanwhile, the Dutch continued to drive out the Portuguese from their bases in Asia. Malacca finally succumbed in 1641 (after a second attempt to capture it), Colombo in 1656, Ceylon in 1658, Nagappattinam in 1662 and Cranganore and Cochin in 1662. Goa, the capital of the Portuguese Empire in the East, was attacked by the Dutch twice in 1603 and 1610, on both occasions unsuccessfully. Whilst the Dutch were unable in four attempts to capture Macau from where Portugal monopolised the lucrative China-Japan trade, the Japanese shogunate's increasing suspicion of the intentions of the Catholic Portuguese led to their expulsion in 1639. Under the subsequent sakoku policy, for two hundred years the Dutch were the only European power allowed to operate in Japan, confined in 1639 to Hirado and then from 1641 at Deshima.

By 1650, the Dutch had overtaken Portugal as the dominant player in the spice and silk trade, and in 1652 founded a colony at Cape Town on the coast of South Africa, as a way-station for its ships on the route between Europe and Asia.

In the Atlantic, the West India Company concentrated on wresting from Portugal its grip on the sugar and slave trade, and on opportunistic attacks on the Spanish treasure fleets on their homeward bound voyage. Bahia on the north east coast of Brazil was captured in 1624 but only held for a year before it was recaptured by a joint Spanish-Portuguese expedition. In 1628, Piet Heyn captured the entire Spanish treasure fleet, and made off with a vast fortune in precious metals and goods that enabled the Company two years later to pay its shareholders a cash dividend of 70%, though the Company was to have relatively few other successes against the Spanish. In 1630, the Dutch occupied the Portuguese sugar-settlement of Pernambuco and over the next few years pushed inland, annexing the sugar plantations that surrounded it. In order to supply the plantations with the manpower they required, an expedition was launched in 1637 from Brazil to capture the Portuguese slaving post of Elmina, and in 1641 successfully captured the Portuguese settlements in Angola. By 1650, the West India Company was firmly in control of both the sugar and slave trades, and had occupied the Caribbean islands of Sint Maarten, Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire in order to guarantee access to the islands' salt-pans.

Unlike in Asia, Dutch successes against the Portuguese in Brazil and Africa were short-lived. Years of settlement had left large Portuguese communities under the rule of the Dutch, who were by nature traders rather than colonisers. In 1645, the Portuguese community at Pernambuco rebelled against their Dutch masters, and by 1654, the Dutch had been ousted from Brazil. In the intervening years, a Portuguese expedition had been sent from Brazil to recapture Luanda in Angola, by 1648 the Dutch were expelled from there also.

On the north-east coast of North America, the West India Company took over a settlement that had been established by the Company of New Netherland (1614-18) at Fort Orange at Albany on the Hudson River, relocated from Fort Nassau which had been founded in 1614. The Dutch had been sending ships annually to the Hudson River to trade fur since Henry Hudson's voyage of 1609. In order to protect its precarious position at Albany from the nearby English and French, the Company founded the fortified town of New Amsterdam in 1625 at the mouth of the Hudson, encouraging settlement of the surrounding areas of Long Island and New Jersey. The fur trade ultimately proved impossible for the Company to monopolise due to the massive illegal private trade in furs, and the settlement of New Netherland was unprofitable. In 1655, the nearby colony of New Sweden on the Delaware River was forcibly absorbed into New Netherland after ships and soldiers were sent to capture it by the Dutch governor, Pieter Stuyvesant.

Ever since its inception, the Dutch East India Company had been in competition with its counterpart, the English East India Company, founded two years earlier but with a capital base eight times smaller, for the same goods and markets in the East. In 1619, the rivalry resulted in the Amboyna massacre, when several English Company men were executed by agents of the Dutch. The event remained a source of English resentment for several decades, and in the late 1620s the English Company shifted its focus to from Indonesia to India.

Anglo-Dutch WarsEdita

In 1651, the English parliament passed the first of the Navigation Acts which excluded Dutch shipping from the lucrative trade between England and its Caribbean colonies, and led directly to the outbreak of hostilities between the two countries the following year. The war would prove to be indecisive, but the English had failed to replace the Dutch as the leader of World trade.

The Second Anglo-Dutch War was precipitated in 1664 when English forces moved to capture New Netherland. After two years of war, the Dutch, led by Michiel de Ruyter,destroyed or captured much of the British fleet at Medway, and England was forced to sue for peace. Under the Treaty of Breda (1667), New Netherland was ceded to England in exchange for the English settlements in Suriname, which had been conquered by Dutch forces earlier that year.

Wars With FranceEdita

In 1672 the French invaded the Republic, starting the Franco-Dutch War and were only stopped when they reached the Dutch Water Line. England and France had secretly agreed to split the Netherlands between themselves, but after defeats at sea, and unable to cross the waterline, the French Army began a slow and cautious retreat out of the Republic. Peace was signed in 1678.

The Glorious Revolution of 1688 saw the Dutch William of Orange invade England, and ascend to the throne, ending Fifty years of rivalry between the Netherlands and England, and brought the two countries into the Nine Years' War against France the same year. The Anglo-Dutch fleet(mostly Dutch) dominated the seas, and France was unsuccessful.

Peter Romanov the Great of Russia (1689-1723)Edita

Peter installed an absolute monarchy in Russia, with absolutely no concept of the social contract. Serfdom still remained strong in Russia, with no middle class nor urbanization. In Russia, advancement was based upon merit rather than birth or blood line.

The ultimate goal of Peter's foreign policy was to obtain warm water ports for his nation, which were essential for trade, naval power, and access to the west. He battled Sweden for a port on the Baltic and with the Ottoman Turks for a port on the Black Sea. In the Great Northern War against Sweden, Russia defeated the Swedish army in Poltava by using the scorched earth policy, in which the Russians retreat, burn the crops or villages in the town, and wait for winter to take its toll upon the enemy troops. As a result, the Russians successfully obtained their warm water port on the Baltic, which was named St. Petersburg and known as the "window to the west."

Peter enacted the "Great Embassy," which was a tour of Peter and his nobles through many Western European nations. The ultimate goal of the Great Embassy was to use the information collected to "westernize" Russia, as Peter was afraid of increasing Western power. Through the Great Embassy, Peter acquired many important technological skills, especially military technology, such as naval instruments, army tactics, ship building techniques, and naval strategy. He imported foreign workers with technological skills as well, and introduced new attire that was being worn across the rest of Europe. He implemented the Julian calendar, which although was not the modern Gregorian calendar at the time, was more modern than what was being used in the past. He established much better education, and he also established the first modern Russian army with 200,000 men. Nobles were required to perform state service in either the army or the bureaucracy.

Baroque ArtEdita

Baroque Art came to existence during the 1600s and lasted through the mid-1700s. Baroque art was used by Catholics in the Counter-Reformation. Baroque Art can be characterized by its rich and vibrant colors, its intense use of light, great drama, and exuberance. Unlike Renaissance art, which usually depicted mellow scenes, Baroque Art captured the climax of a scene. It used dynamic lighting to create a "spotlight" effect on the canvas.

Baroque art was used in archetecture, art, and even music. This form of work was included in the building of St. Petersburg.

CaravaggioEdita

Caravaggio was a famous Italian painter for the Catholic Counter-Reformation, painting such works as Judith Slaying Holofernes and The Incredulity of St. Thomas. He introduced dramatic light and dark effects, and he helped transition from mannerism to new Baroque styles.

BerniniEdita

Bernini was a famous Italian sculptor, who perhaps most famously created The Ecstasy of St. Theresa. This sculpture was of the mystic nun in a trance in the height of religious rapture. Bernini was one of the first masters to realize the importance of the effect of light.

Revolui siensal e LuminaEdita

IntroduiEdita

The Age of Science of the 1600s and the Enlightenment of the 1700s, also dubbed the Age of Enlightenment, introduced countless new concepts to European society. These ideas continue to permeate modern society. Many modern institutions have much of their foundations in the ideals of these times.

An Era of Enlightened RulersEdita

A new form of government began to replace absolutism across the continent. Whilst monarchs were reluctant to give up their powers, many also recognized that their states could potentially benefit from the spread of Enlightenment ideas. The most prominent of these rulers were Frederick II the Great Hohenzollern of Prussia, Joseph II Hapsburg of Austria, and Catherine II the Great Romanov of Russia.

In order to understand the actions of the European monarchs of this period, it is important to understand their key beliefs. Enlightened despots rejected the concept of absolutism and the divine right to rule. They justified their position based on their usefulness to the state. These rulers based their decisions upon their reason, and they stressed religious toleration and the importance of education. They enacted codified, uniform laws, repressed local authority, nobles, and the church, and often acted impulsively and instilled change at an incredibly fast rate.

Catarina la Grande 1762-1796Edita

Catherine the Great came to power because Peter III failed to bear a male heir to the throne and was killed.

Her enlightened reforms include:

  • Restrictions on torture
  • Religious toleration
  • Education for girls
  • 1767 Legislative Commission, which reported to her on the state of the Russian people
  • Trained and educated her grandson Alexander I so that he could progress in society because of his merit rather than his blood line

She was friends with Diderot, Rousseau, Voltaire. However, Catherine also took a number of decidedly unenlightened actions. In 1773 she violently suppressed Pugachev's Rebellion, a massive peasant rebellion against the degradation of the serfs. She conceded more power to the nobles and eliminated state service. Also, serfdom became equivalent to slavery under her.

Foreign PolicyEdita

Catherine combated the Ottoman Empire. In 1774, Russia gained a warm water port on the Black Sea.

Frederico 2 la Grande 1740-1786Edita

Frederick II Hohenzollern of Prussia declared himself "The First Servant of the State," believing that it was his duty to serve the state and do well for his nation. He extended education to all classes, and established a professional bureaucracy and civil servants. He created a uniform judicial system and abolished torture. During his tenure, Prussia innovated agriculture by using potatoes and turnips to replenish the soil. Also, Frederick established religious freedom in Prussia.

Joseph II Habsburg 1765-1790Edita

Joseph II Habsburg (also spelled as Hapsburg) of Austria could be considered perhaps the greatest enlightened ruler, and he was purely enlightened, working solely for the good of his country. He was anti-feudalism, anti-church, and anti-nobility. He famously stated, "The state should provide the greatest good for the greatest number." He created equal punishment and taxation regardless of class, complete freedom of the press, toleration of all religions, and civil rights for Jews. Under Joseph II a uniform law code was established, and in 1781 he abolished serfdom and in 1789 ordered the General School Ordinance, which required compulsory education for Austrian children. However, Joseph failed because he angered people by making changes far too swiftly, and even the serfs weren't satisfied with their abrupt freedom.

EnglandEdita

Como resulta de la Revolui Gloriosa de 1688, England ia ave ja un Parlamento e tal la conseta de gidor luminada ia no infisa en England.

FransEdita

After Louis XIV the "Sun King," Louis XV took control from 1715 until 1774. Like his predecessor, he was an absolute monarch who enacted mercantilism. As a result of the influence and control of absolutism in France, France also did not encounter an enlightened ruler. In order to consummate an alliance between his nation and Austria, Maria Theresa of Austria married her daughter, Marie Antoinette, to Louis XV's heir, Louis XVI. Louis XV recognized that the fragile institutions of absolutism were crumbling in France, and he famously stated, "Après moi, le déluge", or "After me, the flood."

A War-Torn EuropeEdita

War of Austrian SuccessionEdita

The war of Austrian Succession of 1740 to 1748 pitted Austria, England, and the Dutch against Prussia, France, and Spain. Upon Maria Theresa's acquisition of the Austrian throne, Frederick the Great of Prussia attacked Silesia, and war broke out. In 1748 peace came at the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle. The treaty preserved the balance of power and the status quo ante bellum. Austria survived but lost Silesia, which began "German Dualism" or the fight between Prussia and Austria over who would dominate and eventually unite Germany.

The Seven Years WarEdita

The peace in 1748 was recognized as temporary by all, and in 1756 Austria and France allied in what was known as the Diplomatic Revolution. The reversal of the traditional France versus Austria situation occurred as a result of both nation's fear of a rising, militant Prussia. To consummate the marriage, Louis XVI married Marie Antionette. The Seven Years War engaged Austria, France, Russia, Spain, Sweden, and Saxony against Prussia and England. The purpose of the war was to annihilate Prussia, and took place at a number of fronts: in Europe, in America (where American citizens know it as the French and Indian War) and in India. At the Peace of Paris in 1763, the war concluded, and Prussia retained all of its territory, including Silesia. France ceded Canada to Britain and the North American interior to Spain, and removed its armies from India. It did, however, get to keep its West Indies colonies.

At this point, Great Britain became the supreme naval power and it began its domination of India.

The Partitioning of PolandEdita

Poland was first partitioned on February 19, 1772, between Russia, Austria, and Prussia, in an agreement between them to gain more land and power in Europe. Poland was able to be partitioned because it was weak and had no ability to stop the larger and more powerful nations. The balance of power was not taken into consideration by France or England because the partitioning did not upset the great powers of Europe. The second partition involved Russia and Prussia taking additional land from Poland. After the second partition, which occurred on January 21, 1792, the majority of their remaining land was lost to Prussia and Russia. The third partition of Poland took place in October of 1795, giving Russia, Prussia, and Austria the remainder of the Polish land. Russia ended up with 120,000 square kilometres, Austria 47,000 square kilometres, and Prussia 55,000 square kilometres. This took Poland off of the map.

Science and TechnologyEdita

The Enlightenment was notable for its scientific revolution, which changed the manner in which the people of Europe approached both science and technology. This was the direct result of philosophic enquiry into the ways in which science should be approached. The most important figures in this change of thinking were Descartes and Bacon.

The philosopher René Descartes presented the notion of deductive reasoning - that is, to start with a premise and to then discard evidence that doesn't support the premise. However, Sir Francis Bacon introduced a new method of thought. He suggested that instead of using deductive reasoning, people should use inductive reasoning - in other words, they should gather evidence and then reach a conclusion based on the evidence. This line of thought also became known as the Scientific Method.

Changes in AstronomyEdita

The Scientific Revolution began with discoveries in astronomy, most importantly dealing with the concept of a solar system. These discoveries generated controversy, and some were forced by church authorities to recant their theories.

 
Aristotle

Pre-Revolution: Aristotle and PtolemyEdita

The geocentric (earth-centred) view of the universe had been taught since the days of Aristotle. Ptomely's "Almagest" (c.2nd century CE) was the standard text used to teach students astronomy and remained so for hundreds of years. Ptolemy's theories are a mixture of science and religion and to modern readers may come across as unusual though it must always be borne in mind that Ptolemy was building upon the works of earlier astronomers. Surprisingly a Greek philosopher called Aristarchus (310 BC - ca.230 BC) suggested that the earth moved around the sun and though this was common knowledge amongst all who studied astronomy it would be over a thousand years before he was proved right. The early christian church (c.4th century CE) adopted the Ptolemaic system since it was in accord with biblical teaching. A universe without the earth at its center would negate divine purpose and Ptolemy's idea of the spheres in harmony strengthened the creationist argument. The Enlightenment, which is also referred to as the Age of Reason, was a period when European philosophers emphasized the use of reason as the best method for learning the truth.

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)Edita

 
Heliocentric solar system

During the Renaissance, study of astronomy at universities began. Regiomontanus and Nicolas of Cusa developed new advances in mathematics and methods of calculation.

Copernicus, although a devout Christian, doubted whether the views held by Aristotle and Ptolemy were completely correct. Using mathematics and visual observations with only the naked eye, he developed the Heliocentric, or Copernican, Theory of the Universe, stating that the Earth revolves around the sun.

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)Edita

Tycho Brahe created a mass of scientific data on astronomy during his lifetime; although he made no major contributions to science, he laid the groundwork for Kepler's discoveries.

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)Edita

Kepler was a student of Brahe. He used Brahe's body of data to write Kepler's Three Laws of Planetary Motion, most significantly noting that planets' orbits are elliptical instead of circular.

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)Edita

Galileo is generally given credit for invention of the telescope; although the device itself is not of Galileo's design, he was the first to use it for astronomy. With this tool, he proved the Copernican Theory of the Universe.

Galileo spread news of his work through letters to friends and colleagues. Although the Church forced him to recant his ideas and spend the rest of his life under house arrest, his works had already been published and could not be disregarded.

 
Sir Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton (1642-1727)Edita

Newton is often considered the greatest scientific mind in history. His Principia Mathematica (1687) includes Newton's Law of Gravity, an incredibly ground-breaking study. Newton's work destroyed the old notion of an Earth-centred universe.

Newton also had a great influence outside of science. For example, he was to become the hero of Thomas Jefferson.

Developments in MedicineEdita

Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)Edita

Vesalius studied human cadavers, a practice forbidden by church doctrine. His writing The Structure of the Human Body in 1543 renewed and modernized the study of the human body.

William Harvey (1578-1657)Edita

William Harvey wrote On the Movement of the Heart and Blood in 1628, on the circulatory system. He was a doctor and an anatomist.

Society and CultureEdita

As a result of new learning from the Scientific Revolution, the world was less of a mystical place, as natural phenomena became increasingly explainable by science. According to Enlightened philosophers:

  • The universe is a fully tangible place governed by natural rather than supernatural forces.
  • Rigorous application of the scientific method can answer fundamental questions in all areas of inquiry.
  • The human race can be educated to achieve nearly infinite improvement.

Perhaps most importantly, though, Enlightened philosophers stressed that people are all equal because all of us possess reason.

PrecursorsEdita

There were a number of precursors to the Enlightenment. One of the most important was the Age of Science of the 1600s, which presented inductive thinking, and using evidence to reach a conclusion. The ideas of Locke and Hobbes and the notion of the social contract challenged traditional thinking and also contributed to the Enlightenment. Scepticism, which questioned traditional authority and ideas, contributed as well. Finally, the idea of moral relativism arose - assailing people for judging people who are different from themselves.

The Legacy of the EnlightenmentEdita

The Enlightenment began in France, as a result of its well-developed town and city life, as well as its large middle class that wanted to learn the ideas. The Enlightenment promoted the use of one's reason, rather than accepting tradition. It rejected the traditional attitudes of the Catholic Church. Many "philosophers," or people who thought about subjects in an enquiring, inductive manner, became prominent. Salons were hosted by upper-middle class women who wanted to discuss topics of the day, such as politics.

The Enlightenment stressed that we are products of experience and environment, and that we should have the utmost confidence in the unlimited capacity of the human mind. It stressed the unlimited progress of humans, and the ideas of atheism and deism became especially prominent. Adam Smith's concept of free market capitalism sent European economics in a new direction. Enlightened despots such as Catherine the Great and Joseph II replaced absolute monarchs and used their states as agents of progress. Education and literacy expanded vastly, and people recognized the importance of intellectual freedoms of speech, thought, and press.

Conflict with the ChurchEdita

Although the ideas of the Enlightenment clashed with Church dogma, it was mostly not a movement against the Church. Most Enlightened philosophers considered themselves to be followers of deism, believing that God created an utterly flawless universe and left it alone, some describing God as the "divine clockmaker."

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)Edita

  • dies before the enlightenment
  • English Revolution shapes his political outlook
  • Leviathan (1651) - life is "nasty, brutish, and short" - people are naturally bad and need a strong government to control them.
  • may be considered to be the father of the enlightenment: because of all the opposition he inspired.
 
John Locke

John Locke (1632-1704)Edita

  • specifically refuted Hobbes
  • humanity is only governed by laws of nature, man has right to life, liberty, and property
  • there is a natural social contract that binds the people and their government together; the people have a responsibility to their government, and their government likewise has a responsibility to its people
  • Two Treatises on Civil Government justified supremacy of Parliament
  • Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) - Tabula rasa - human progress is in the hands of society

PhilosophersEdita

Voltaire (1694-1776)Edita

  • stressed religious tolerance

Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)Edita

  • Spirit of the Laws - checks and balances on government, no one group having sole power
 
Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)Edita

  • social contract
  • "general will" - government acts for the majority

Rococo ArtEdita

 
Diana Leaving her Bath by François Boucher.

The Rococo Art movement of the 1700s emphasized elaborate, decorative, frivolous, and aristocratic art. Often depicted were playful intrigue, love, and courtship. The use of wispy brush strokes and pastels was common in Rococo Art. Rococo Art is especially associated with the reign of Louis XV Bourbon in France. The French artist Boucher painted for Madame Pompadour, the mistress of Louis XV. The most famous paintings of Boucher include Diana Leaving her Bath and Pastorale, a painting of a wealthy couple under a tree.

Revolui en FransEdita

IntroduiEdita

La Revolui Franses de 1789 es un de la avenis la plu importante en la istoria franses e european. Lo marca la asende de la clase tre pos sentenios de paia impostas alta a la re. La revolui ia sentri sur la re debil Louis 16 e la rea nonmatur Marie Antoinette, como la publica ia vide los, e sua modo de vive lusosa ascondeda en Versailles. La popla de Frans en acle tempo de 1789 ia ave influi de la media, cual ia no aida en la situa. La jornalistes ia crea istorias sur la spende lusosa de la "rea malvolente" cual ia fa el multe nonpopular entre la publica franses. La 6 otobre 1789 marca la comensa de la revolui cuando sentos de mercatores femes (e omes desemblada como femes) ia marxa a la Palasio de Versailles esijente la testa de la rea e la reveni direta de la re a Paris. La femes ia susede en trae la familia real a Paris, an si la rea no ia es matada como intendeda. La situa ia mali en Paris cuando la "Rena de Teror" ia oteni la potia, e cuando Marie Antoinette ia dise "Aora los va fa prisonidas real de nos".

Diplomatic RevolutionEdita

The Diplomatic Revolution is a term applied to the reversal of long standing diplomatic alliances in the wake of the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle which concluded the War of the Austrian Succession in 1748. The traditional alliances of France and Prussia against Great Britain and Austria changed to France and Austria against Great Britain and Prussia. In order to cement the alliance, Maria Theresa of Austria married her daughter, Marie Antoinette, to Louis XVI, heir to the French throne. Despite hope that this alliance would create an unbeatable power bloc in Europe, it failed to win the Seven Years' War (fought in Europe from 1758-1763, known in America as the French and Indian War), as both Austria and France failed to stop the rising power of Prussia under Frederick the Great. Furthermore, public opinion on both sides was very sceptical of this alliance, for Austria and France had traditionally been enemies since the Habsburg-Valois wars of the 16th century.

The Austrian alliance, including the marriage of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette is commonly considered one of the central causes of the French Revolution. The Queen was widely condemned for her extravagance, extreme even for a queen, and the most quoted remark never said; when told that the peasants of France were so poor that they could not put bread on the table, she was said to have replied, "let them eat cake," which supposedly "proved" that she was out of touch with the general populace. Although it is unlikely that the queen ever said such a thing, it is still an example of the French citizens' opinion of their royalty, that they would create such a story. As the historian Munro Price suggests, though, much of the criticism of Marie-Antoinette came from the fact that there was no one else to blame for bad policies. Under Louis XIV and Louis XV, both of whom were prolific womanizers who had many official mistresses during their respective reigns, public opinion often leveled the blame for society's ills at the King's current ministers who, more often than not, owed their position to the royal mistress (such as the Duc de Choiseul and Madame de Pompadour in the 1750s). When there was no mistress, however, as was the case with Louis XVI, opinion turned on the Queen, who was widely perceived, and to some extent correctly, to exercise influence with the King in the choice of ministers, as had happened with the intermittent appointments of the Baron de Breteuil (a favorite of the Queen's) to the royal council.

NeoclassicismEdita

 
Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David (1793)

Neoclassicism is a genre of art that was prevalent mainly in the 18th and into the early 19th centuries that was based on the Greek style of decoration such as columns. Neoclassical art uses sharp colors as a replacement for more pastel colors. Neoclassicism was influenced by The Enlightenment, which took place in the 17th and 18th centuries, and was the thought of more individualization of the community. It emphasized reason rather than emotion.

One of the more popular french artists during neoclassic age was Jacques-Louis David. He was born August 30th 1748 and died on December 29th 1825. He painted the painting call “Tennis Court Oath” in 1792 of the Tennis Court Oath during the French Revolution. During the French Revolution, he became good friends with Maximilien Robespierre, the head of the Committee of Public Safety.

Precursors to the French RevolutionEdita

Countless ideas from the Enlightenment contributed to the French Revolution. Locke's ideas of overthrowing government that does not respect the social contract, as well as Rousseau's ideas of the general will and the French government's failure to represent the general will of the people, were major factors. The Enlightenment also stripped away at religion, especially Catholicism, directly attacking the divine right theory that Louis XVI of France used to justify his position.

Additionally, there were massive food shortages across France, there was a constant war, anger over social inequality, and a weak queen and king. Moreover, a harsh winter had resulted in no harvest and the lack of food, especially bread, causing poverty, death, and destruction.

The immediate spark of the French Revolution, however, was the financial crisis in France. This problem stemmed from a number of issues. One of the most prominent of these issues was the fact that the nobles were tax-exempt, and the nobles resisted any attempt by Louis to tax them. In addition, France had accrued massive debt from assisting in the American Revolution, as well as from the Seven Years War. Finally, French tax collectors were corrupt. As a result, Louis called the Estates General for assistance and advice to resolve the financial crisis.

The Estates General consisted of three estates: the first estate was made up of clergymen, the second estate was made up of nobles, and the third estate was made up of commoners, who represented at least 95% of the populace. The third estate, angry over their disproportionate representation and their inability to act according to their needs, rebelled, and declared itself the National Assembly. Three days later members of the third estate took the Oath of the Tennis Court, swearing allegiance to the French nation and drawing up a list of grievances (cahiers de doléances) against the king. They aimed to democratically represent the will of the people and give the people a constitution, and they were clearly motivated by the Glorious Revolution of 1688 in England.

End of a royal familyEdita

The terrified King Louis XVI, Queen Marie Antoinette their two young children (11 year old Marie Therese and four year old Louis-Charles) and the King's sister, Madam Elizabeth, on the 6th October 1789 were forced back to Paris from Versailles by a mob of market women. In a carriage, they traveled back to Paris surrounded by a mob of people screaming and shouting threats against the King and Queen. The mob of people forced the King And Queen to have their carriage windows wide open. At one point a member of the mob waved the head of a royal guard killed at Versailles in front of the terrified Queen. Despite Marie Antoinette's best efforts to please the mob in giving out bread from the carriage, it was thrown back, as the people refused to eat it as "It is sure to be poisoned."

The next four years of the Royal family’s lives were to be of misery and hope although the efforts of Queen Marie Antoinette’s Austrian family, and close friends of the King and Queen such as Count Ferson and Count Mercy, and despite one failed rescue attempt, the royal family were imprisoned. The Royal family saw the terror of the French Revolution, the Queens nephew by 1792 was now Emperor of Austria and felt no need to rescue his Aunt who he had never met before. In 1792 the crown was abolished in favour of a republic making the now former Royal family of France to be nicknamed “The carpets”. Louis Carpet, the former King, stood trial in January of 1793 and was found guilty of treason and sentenced to death by Guillotine. An emotional scene followed in which the King said his goodbye to his devastated family. “And you came to France for this!” Louis exclaimed to his wife, Marie Antoinette, dressed in black upon hearing that her husband had been executed from that day on. However more sadness followed when the “Widow Carpet” Marie Antoinette’s 8 year old son Louis-Charles was to be taken away. Marie Antoinette leaped into his arms and did not let go for a full hour, despite threats to her life. It was not until they threatened to kill her Marie Therese that she let go. The boy who was hailed as King by Royalist around France and Europe was integrated and turned against his mother. The former Queen was also taken from Madam Elizabeth and her daughter, “Treat her like a second mother” Marie Antoinette told Marie Therese before departing form the tower. As Marie Antoinette was led down form the tower she hit her head on the last pillar of the staircases “Did that hurt Madam?” asked a guard “No I felt nothing” replied the former Queen drenched in black. The widow Carpet was taken to a Woman’s Prison. A man waiting a the reception was woken up by a guard (The man had worked at Versailles once as a pastry maker and instantly recognised the former Queen) “Name Please” he asked, Marie Antoinette replied blankly “Look at me”. Deprived of everything the former Queen spend days in her hot cell, reading books, making clothes for her daughter, and playing with a ring on her finger passing it on to finger to finger. Every now and then the Queen would look up when hearing of what sounded like a harp being played, reminding her of distant days long gone. The existence of the Royal family was a weak one of suffering and pain, Marie Antoinette’s sister wrote “Maybe natural death is the best fate” about Marie Antoinette. Finally in October 1793 a full 4 years into the French revolution Antoinette was trailed and found guilty of Treason among other things. She was executed on the 16th October 1793 by Guillotine, Before leaving for her death it was rumoured she said “Now I shall take my place in hell, with my mother and two emperor brothers, and as for my fat pompous of a husband, I want nothing more to do with him”. However Marie Antoinette properly did not say this, just another public stunt form the media. Her final words were simply “sorry mousier I did not do it on purpose” after stepping on the executioners foot. Madam Elizabeth followed her brother and sister in law foot steps to the blade a year later. Louis-Charles died alone in his cell in 1795. Marie Therese however out lived the revolution and lived until the 1850s becoming Queen of France for 20 minutes, and holding the title her mother made so iconic “Dauphine of France”. She died in Austria, places of exile (In which she spent most of her life) include, Scotland, Kent and Austria. Returning to France for a brief period of time before being forced to leave by Napoleon who said “She was the only man in her family” when Marie Therese gathered an army and refused to leave France.

Storming of the BastilleEdita

 
The storming of the Bastille, July 14 1789

On July 14, 1789, the revolting Paris mob stormed the Bastille. While only seven prisoners were housed behind its walls, none of whom could be considered political in any way, this event was essential because it symbolized that the people were no longer standing for the power of the nobles and the king, or the rising of the people against the tyranny of absolutism. The fall of the Bastille was also the first time, but certainly not the last, during the Revolution that popular mobs would rise up and take action outside of the legislature. These later risings, known in French as journees, would prove to be both extremely influential on public opinion and a cause for major hand-wringing on the part of the legislature, who did not want to risk a massive popular revolution as opposed to the controlled "bourgeois" revolution.


New GovernmentsEdita

The revolutionaries in France established a new government in order to accomplish what they desired.

National Assembly 1789-1791Edita

The members of the National Assembly came from the members of the third estate in the Estates General. These members tended to be from the upper middle class, or bourgeois, and were often referred to as "Jacobins" since they frequently met in Jacobin clubs to discuss the revolution.

The lower third estate, or the rest of the citizenry, led the fighting arm of the revolution and the National Assembly at this time. They did not, however, take part in the government. The urban middle class led the storming on the Bastille and the march on Versailles.

Efforts to Remake SocietyEdita

The National Assembly took a number of actions to remake society. They established social equality, and signed the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen, which was a social contract. It provided for freedom of religion, taxation of equality, legal equality, and freedom of press and expression. They wrote a constitution that established a constitutional monarchy with a parliament. The parliament was to be run by the bourgeois, who were considered "active" citizens, while the rest of the citizens were considered "passive" citizens and would not be allowed to take part in government. People in government were to progress based upon merit. Finally, the National Assembly established the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790), which clergymen would eventually be required to swear an oath to in 1791. In addition to nationalizing church property, the Civil Constitution also abolished religious vows and turned all Church clerics (including monks and nuns) into civil servants who received their pay and assignments not from Rome, but from Paris. While this was initially well-received by many Frenchmen who applauded the "bringing home" of the church, the subsequent punitive measures taken against clergy who did not swear the oath (also known as the refractory clergy) would be a cause of great resentment in the Western provinces, and was one of the causes behind the Vendee rising in 1793.

Legislative Assembly 1791-1792Edita

The provisions of the National Assembly established what was supposed to be a permanent constitutional monarchy, the Legislative Assembly, with Louis XVI as the monarch. However, the Legislative Assembly failed very quickly for a number of reasons. The lower third estate felt abandoned by the bourgeois politically. In addition, the Legislative Assembly failed to fix the food and unemployment problems. As a result, the working men of France, or the sans-culottes, rose against the Legislative Assembly.

War with Austria and PrussiaEdita

Emigres, or nobility that had fled France during the Revolution, in Austria wanted the Austrian government to crush the Revolution. Other nations feared revolution in their own countries. Austria signed the Declaration of Pillnitz (1791), which stated that if the other powers attack France, so would Austria. The French interpreted this as a virtual declaration of war.

The Brunswick Manifesto (1792) by Prussia stated that the Prussians would punish the citizens of Paris if they did anything to harm Louis XVI or Marie Antionette. Prussia and Austria allied for the balance of power, in order to weaken France. The draining of war on the newly formed government also contributed to its downfall.

Convention 1792-1795Edita

 
Anonymous Portrait of Maximilien de Robespierre c. 1793 (Carnavalet Museum).

The Convention was an emergency republic with universal male suffrage. The leading body of the Convention was the Committee of Public Safety, who worked to suppress dissent and protect the revolution. The Committee was composed of twelve members, of whom the dominant individual was Maximilien de Robespierre. The leadership of the Convention split into two factions: the Montagnards (or "Mountain"), who was more radical and included Robespierre, and the Girondin, which was more middle class.

The Convention had a number of issues to address. First, and perhaps most importantly, they were actively engaged in war with Prussia and Austria. They instituted the first draft, called the levee en masse, and a nationalist feeling rose among troops. In 1794, the French army invaded Austria and was successful.

In addition, the Convention needed to remake society. Members instituted "dechristianization," which was essentially the purging of Christians in France.

The Convention also needed to address the food problem, and established the "General Maximum" that controlled bread prices and wages.

Finally, the Convention needed to stop the counter-revolution and write a new constitution. During a period known as "The Terror," Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety utilized the newly invented guillotine to kill tens of thousands of counter-revolutionaries. The Convention successfully wrote a new constitution, establishing a government known as the Directory as a permanent republic.

On 27 July ("9 Thermidor" in the Revolutionary Calendar) 1794, Robespierre himself was arrested, and was executed the next day. The resulting "Thermidorian Reaction" was a response to France's swing to the left, during which the government briefly went to the right, and finally back to the center. The Jacobins and other Montagnards were replaced with the more moderate Girondins (Bourgeois), and many Montagnard members were executed.

Directory 1795-1799Edita

The Directory was the first constitutional republic, which had an executive body of five directors, as well as a bicameral legislative body consisting of the Council of Ancients and the Council of 500. In 1797, the first free elections were held, and the people of France astonished members of the Directory by electing a majority of royalists to the legislature. Unwilling to risk the reversal of everything achieved since 1789, left-wing members of the legislature, combined with support from the military, purged the Directory of rightist members in the coup of 18 Fructidor, which established a dictatorship controlled by left-wing Directors. However, people grew fearful of a possible return of the Terror, thus, when Napoleon Bonaparte and Abbe Sieyes launched the coup of 18 Brumaire to end the Directory and instead establish the Consulate, there was little opposition.

Napoleon e la asende de nasionalismeEdita

IntroductionEdita

 
Napoleon I of France, by Jacques-Louis David.

In a better attempt to prevent freely elected royalists from taking control of the Directory in 1799, members of the bourgeois sent Napoleon Bonaparte and his army to defend the Directory and the annulment of the elections. However, Napoleon took advantage of this situation and in the Coup of Brumaire took control of the nation.

The Consulate 1799-1804Edita

Napoleon seized control and initially installed an enlightened despotism known as the Consulate. During this time, Napoleon instituted a number of important Enlightened reforms. The most important of these is his Napoleonic Code, which provided freedom of religion, a uniform law codes, social and legal equality, property rights, and end feudal dues. He also implemented a state-wide compulsory education, known as the University of France. In 1801 he ended dechristianization.

The Empire 1804-1814Edita

 
Napoleonic Empire, 1811: France in dark blue, satellite states in light blue

Napoleon declared himself French Emperor and became a military dictator. Napoleon was undefeated against his three main continental enemies, defeating Austria, Russia, and Prussia multiple times. During his tenure, he took control of large amounts of mainland Europe. However, Napoleon failed to subdue England, and was defeated in his attempt to crush the English Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar by Admiral Nelson. As a result, Napoleon employed the Continental System, a method of economic warfare. He prohibited trade with the British by blockading all coasts of Europe from English export. Unfortunately for Napoleon, this failed, as the British still were able to smuggle goods into Europe, and were also able to trade with their colonies, Asia, and the United States. Napoleon eliminated the Holy Roman Empire, and in 1806 consolidated it into 40 states and named it the Confederation of the Rhine.

After Alexander I of Russia withdrew from the Continental System, Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812. For the first time, Napoleon failed, as the Russian army employed scorched earth tactics to defeat Napoleon's army. However, Napoleon quickly raised a new army, but this army was crushed by the Quadruple Alliance of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia at the Battle of Nations/Leipzig in 1813. Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba, but he managed to escape and return in 1815 in a period known as the Hundred Days. The Quadruple Alliance again crushed his new army at the Battle of Waterloo, led by the great British General Wolsey (Duke of Wellington). Napoleon was then exiled to the island of Saint Helena where he died in 1821.

The Congress of Vienna 1814-1815Edita

The Quadruple Alliance assembled at the Congress of Vienna to create a post-Napoleonic Europe. Their representatives were Castlereagh of England, who assembled the Quadruple Alliance, Talleyrand of France, Metternich of Austria, and Alexander I of Russia.

The Congress of Vienna was incredibly lenient toward France. It simply restored the old boundaries and restored Louis XVIII to the throne. It imposed no reparations. This was done because the allies desired a stable, prosperous France that would not threaten them with revolution or invasion.

The Restoration of Louis XVIII BourbonEdita

Louis XVIII did not wipe out the gains of the Revolution. Rather, out of fear of revolution, he signed the Charter of 1814 that provided legal equality, offices open to all men, a two chamber parliament, Napoleonic civil code, and the abolition of feudalism.

A Shift in Foreign PolicyEdita

After Napoleon's fall, European foreign policy took a major shift. While preserving the balance of power was still important, now much more prominently featured in war would be advocates of liberalism (revolutionaries, republicans, nationalists) versus conservatism or the "Old Regime" (the monarchy, aristocrats, clergymen).

Old Regime monarchs, led by Klemens Wenzel von Metternich of Austria, used the Congress System, also known as the Concert of Europe, to prevent revolution and war. At the Congress System the leading of nations of Europe worked together to prevent the outbreak of revolution in each nation.

A New NationalismEdita

Many of the territories occupied by Napoleon during his Empire began to feel a new sense of nationalism. During the occupation, Napoleon destroyed and disallowed many nation's individual cultures, and the people of these nations greatly resented this. As a result, Napoleon's conquests spurred a new nationalism in the occupied nations, particularly in Germany and Italy, at a level that had never previously existed.

Eda de revoluisEdita

IntroduiEdita

La sentenio 19 temprana ia es dominada par la tempo seguente del Revolui Franses e le Geras Napoleonal. An si Napoleon ia es vinseda en 1815 e la monarcia Bourbon is es restorada en Frans, multe statos european ia es cambiada par 25 anios de disputas. States such as Prussia, Austria and the Netherlands found themselves expanded by the peace settlement of 1815. Conversely, other countries, most notably Poland, were dissolved in this process of state consolidation. These national upheavals were accompanied by a heightened sense of nationalism amongst the population of many states, which had been encouraged by Enlightenment ideas, spread throughout Europe by the Napoleonic conquests.

In the decades following the peace of 1815 many European countries were beset by social conflicts as the populations sought to assert their rights against the often autocratic rulers of their states. This was to produce what the historian Eric Hobsbawn has dubbed the Age of Revolutions, as the tensions within states were to frequently erupt into large-scale political upheavals, such as the French revolutions of 1830 and 1848.

Europe in the Age of RevolutionsEdita

Europe was a turbulent continent in the period after the Napoleonic Wars. Although the Treaty of Vienna had tried to restore many European states to their pre-war states, the influence of the war years was significant, particularly the Enlightenment ideas that were spread throughout Europe by Napoleon's armies. The result was an age of revolutions. A distinctive feature was the manner in which waves of revolutions could sweep through Europe, most notably in 1830 and 1848, when popular revolt in France influenced the people of other states to rebel against their rulers.

BelgiumEdita

Prior to the nineteenth century the southern part of the Netherlands had been dominated by foreign powers, most notably the Hapsburg states of Spain and Austria. However, the critical geographical position of the area led the major powers of Europe, in the Treaty of Vienna, to cede the territory to the Dutch Republic in 1815, to create the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. This caused resentment within the region; local liberals resented the autocratic nature of the Dutch king, whilst conservative Catholics disliked the dominance of Dutch Protestantism.

These tensions were to lead to the revolution of 1830, when the region declared itself independent, taking the name Belgium in reference to the Celtic tribes who had lived in the area in ancient times. The response of the Dutch government came in August 1831, when the Dutch Army set off on a so called "Ten Days Campaign". It was very successful, as the Dutch army pushed into the heart of Belgium within just a few days, also capturing the key city of Antwerp. However, after a desperate Belgian appeal for French help, French troops crossed the border into Belgium. With Russia too busy to guard the Dutch back, both sides agreed to a ceasefire. On December 20, 1830, the European powers recognized Belgium's de facto independence from the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It was not until April 19, 1839 however, that the Treaty of London signed by the European powers (including the Netherlands) recognized Belgium as an independent and neutral country.

FranceEdita

The Treaty of Vienna saw the Bourbon monarchy restored to France. Although the first king after this restoration, Louis XVIII, managed the country well, his successor, Charles X, proved to be unpopular. An autocratic ruler, Charles passed a number of acts that stripped away power promised by Louis to the people. This concluded in the July Ordinances, which dissolved Parliament. As a result, the people of France broke into revolution, known as the July Revolution, replacing Charles X with Louis-Philippe Orleans in what is known as the July Monarchy.

The 1848 Revolution and Louis NapoleonEdita

 
Louis Bonaparte

In February 1848, the citizens revolted again, this time forming a provisional government led by two men, Lamartine, a political republican who advocated freemarket, and Blanc, a social republican, who advocated socialism. Blanc created a system known as the national workships that provided employment to the masses in France.

The National Assembly of 1848 established universal male suffrage, and the people that year elected virtually no socialists. The new government threw out the national workshops, resulting in a revolt by the people. The people, looking to the former glory of France, installed Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, relative of Napoleon Bonaparte, the throne.

President Louis Napoleon Bonaparte rebuilt central Paris, installing new apartments, straight, long, and wide streets, sewage, and sanitation. He also widened the streets in Paris, in an attempt to subvert future revolution, since in the past, revolutionaries in France had used the streets to barricade themselves.

Emperor Napoleon III is often referred to as the socialist emperor because he gave many socialized programs to the citizens. He gave hospitals, socialized medicine, the right to unionize and strike, shorter hours, injured worker homes, a revamped prison system, and more.

However, Napoleon III was also militarily inept. He chose to get involved in wars which he didn't have to, trying to live up to the glory of Napoleon I. He was defeated in his involvement in the Italian unification movement where he sent troops to Rome to protect the Pope, in his involvement with the Mexican Empire from 1862-1867, and in the Franco-Prussian War from 1870-1871, during which he was actually captured by the Prussians.

Great BritainEdita

Whilst reform in many European states was only achieved with the aid of bloody revolution, British parliamentary democracy meant that Great Britain managed to reform and modernise relatively peacefully. The most notable instance of this is the Reform Act of 1832, which reallocated seats in the House of Commons to address the new industrial cities of Britain, and increased suffrage from 500,000 men to 800,000 men. This was to be followed thirty years later by the Reform Act of 1867 granted suffrage to 1/3 of British men. By 1884, 2 to 4.5 million men had suffrage in Britain, including urban workers.

Britain saw other reforms, such as the 1833 Factory Act, which outlawed the employment of children under the age of 9 and limited the workdays of all children. The Mines Act of 1842 was a similar piece of reformist legislation, formally prohibiting women and children from working underground.

British Corn LawsEdita

 
British Prime Minister Robert Peel

One of the most entertaining pieces of political reform during this era was not related to working life, but to the economic management of Britain. The Corn Laws were taxes placed on imported goods to protect Britain's own goods. They forced the British people to buy the more expensive and lower quality British grain by putting a tariff on French grain, which tended to be less expensive and higher quality. The goal was to keep British money in Britain, rather than being spent on importing French grain.

The Corn Laws were passed by the members of the Tory party in Parliament. The Tories were populated by the Landed Gentry. The Whigs, which represented the working class, merchants, factory owners, and so forth in Britain, were opposed to the Corn Laws, but because the Tories controlled Parliament, they were unable to stop the passage of the Corn Laws. The expensive price of British grain necessitated a rise in wages, and factory owners such as David Ricardo were forced to pay higher wages so that their workers could afford the food. Ricardo thus concluded that the Corn Laws simply redistributed wealth from the industrialists to the landowners.

In 1819, 80,000 people gathered in Manchester demanding the repeal of the Corn Laws. British soldiers opened fire, killing 11 demonstrators, in what became known as the Peterloo Massacre. As a result, the Anti-Corn Law League was established in Manchester, and used pamphlets, mass demonstrations, and torchlight parades to protest the Corn Laws.

In 1846, the Corn Laws were repealed under Prime Minister Robert Peel. The government was still led by Tories, but the Irish Potato Famine led to the repeal, demonstrating the new power of the industrialists in England.


SpainEdita

Spain was a country in turmoil during the age of revolutions. Occupied by Napoleon from 1808 to 1814, a brutal "war of independence" was waged against the occupiers that led to an emergent Spanish nationalism. An era of reaction against the liberal ideas associated with revolutionary France followed the war, personified by the rule of Ferdinand VII and—to a lesser extent—his daughter Isabella II. Ferdinand's rule included the loss of the Spanish colonies in the New World, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico, in the 1810s and 1820s. A series of civil wars then broke out in Spain, pitting Spanish liberals and then republicans against conservatives, culminating in the Carlist Wars between the moderate Queen Isabella and her uncle, the reactionary Infante Carlos. Disaffection with Isabella's government from many quarters led to repeated military intervention in political affairs and to several revolutionary attempts against the government. Two of these revolutions were successful,the moderate Vicalvarada or "Vicálvaro Revolution" of 1854 and the more radical la Gloriosa (Glorious Revolution) in 1868. The latter marks the end of Isabella's monarchy. The brief rule of the liberal king Amadeo I of Spain ended in the establishment of the First Spanish Republic, only to be replaced in 1874 by the popular, moderate rule of Alfonso XII of Spain, which finally brought Spain into a period of stability and reform.

1848 Revolutions in the Rest of EuropeEdita

In Italy unemployment, demands for land, and higher wages led to revolts. King Charles Albert led a military campaign against Austria, while Mazzini attempted to organize a republic in Rome. The movement largely failed, however, because different groups of nationalists could not agree on goals. The Austria defeated the campaign, and Napoleon Bonaparte sent troops to Rome.

In Germany revolts started in order to achieve more liberal rights, but the goals were soon replaced with nationalistic sentiments. The Constituent Assembly, under the direction of 800 delegates from the German states, offered Frederick William IV, King of Prussia, the crown of a unified Germany. However, this movement failed as well, as the Constituent Assembly had no actual power and Frederick would not accept a crown "from the gutter". Prussian troops put down revolts in Berlin as well as other revolts throughout Germany.

In Austria, demands for political reform and nationalism created demands for autonomy. Metternich fled to England, and Emperor Ferdinand fled in favor of Franz Joseph. Revolts occurred in Vienna, Prague, and Hungary. A Slavic congress was set up in Prague, Hungarians demanded autonomous rule. Eventually, with the aid of Russia, Austria was able to suppress the revolutions.

The Era of RealpolitikEdita

Before 1848, idealism and reason were at the forefront of people's minds. However, after 1848, the concept of Realpolitik and action arose. This new toughness of mind rejected high-minded ideology for action, and marked the end of the Enlightenment.

On the right, Otto von Bismarck of Germany took Realpolitik actions, manipulating the Ems Telegram in order to spur war with France (Franco-Prussian War) and thus assist the process of German unity. Emperor Napoleon III also did so, widening the streets of Paris during his reconstruction of Paris in order to prevent barricading in the case of revolution. Finally, Cavour of Italy is an excellent example of a practitioner of Realpolitik, as he got Napoleon III to attack Austria over Lombardy-Venetia.

On the left, Marx and Bakunin were practitioners of Realpolitik, advocating violent revolution among the proletariat in order to install a new communist system.

Industrial RevolutionEdita

The shift that precipitated many of the conflicts of the early nineteenth century was the industrial revolution. The growing industrial base of many European countries was to encourage urbanization, often at the expense of the living conditions of the workers. This was coupled with new agrarian technologies which required fewer people to work the land, whilst producing greater agricultural yields. In some countries this precipitated an industrial revolution, where urban industry played an increasingly dominant role in the economy. This process was first seen in Britain, Prussia and the Netherlands in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century whilst other countries, such as France, Italy and the United States of America were to industrialize in the late nineteenth century. Some states, such as Russia and Austria, failed to industrialize significantly in this period, a factor that would lead to later difficulties during the First World War.

The Prefiguration of IndustryEdita

The first evidence of industrial production can be found in the large cities of early modern Europe. Even the modest size of European capitals at the beginning of the modern period allowed for a specialization of trade and, as the cities grew, production increasingly took place in specialist workshops. Tradesmen, who had previously taken only one or two apprentices, began to take larger teams of workers, a process that transformed itself into the paid employment of labor in industrial enterprise. A similar shift took place in rural areas, with what was known as "putting out" or "cottage industry", where agricultural workers would take raw materials from contractors and use them to produce finished goods.

Despite these developments little could be done without a proper transportation system, which would allow goods to be moved and marketed. At the beginning of the eighteenth century the cost of transporting goods overland was prohibitively expensive for all but the shortest journeys.

Beginnings of IndustryEdita

The age of industry for Europe began with slow progress in the 1780s. Western Europe tended to advance more quickly than the east. Britain initially led the way. Progress remained slow until the 1850s, because most people continued to use old methods, and population increases reduced the benefits of industrialization. As a result, the industrial age did not start in continental Europe until after 1815, and was not complete in Britain until 1850.

In 1750, Britain was only slightly ahead of France in its industrial production. By 1830, its industrialization was at twice the level of France, and by 1860, three times. Other countries were further behind; much of Europe's progress was retarded by political and social turmoil, as well as constant warfare. Industrialization also was limited by lack of transportation, reluctance to cease traditional business practices, and lack of technology.

Stephenson's rocket, a train engine, allowed wagons to be pulled along railroad tracks, allowing for the quick transportation of materials, goods, people, and communication. Population increased rapidly across Europe. Finally, the steam-powered engine was invented and improved, allowing for mechanization in industry.

By 1815, continental Europe had started to see progress. Its industrialization was facilitated by a large skilled labor force, strong governments, and no need to develop new ideas as Britain had already set a precedent for other nations to follow. European governments became much more involved in industrialization, building an infrastructure of railroads and canals. The German government created the Zollverein, a customs-free trade union, which allowed goods to move freely within the German states without being hampered by tariffs. Governments also played a role in banking, and they allowed banks to become corporations, such as Crédit Mobilier of Paris.

By 1851, Britain was the "workshop of the world." Britain had 2/3 of the world's known coal supply, and 1/2 of its iron. Centers of continental industrialization included Belgium, France, and Germany.

Social Impact of the Industrial RevolutionEdita

 
Over London by Rail Gustave Doré c 1870. Shows the densely populated and polluted environments created in the new industrial cities

The Industrial Revolution resulted in poor urban living conditions with no sanitation. Urban and industrial growth went beyond the state's control. Public drunkenness as a reaction to the dismal lifestyle became prominent, and the cities were filthy and living conditions tight. Life expectancy was very short, and disease was rampant. New social classes, particularly the industrial middle class and urban workers, emerged as well. The standard of living decreased for many, with low wages and high prices, as well as horrible working conditions and the employment of children.

Noticing the poor crowded city conditions and impoverished workers in industrial Europe, several economists expressed their pessimistic predictions on the future of the industrial society.

Thomas Malthus (1766–1834)Edita

Thomas Malthus was an English economist with a grim prediction for the future. An Essay on the Principle of Population stated that the population was outgrowing the food supply, and that this would inevitably cause a "great hunger," or massive food shortage. Malthus suggested, as a solution to this problem, marrying later in life to slow the population growth, but he was not optimistic that this plan would ever come to fruition.

David Ricardo (1772-1823)Edita

David Ricardo, in his Iron Law of Wages, predicted that the income of wage-earning workers would remain below or just near subsistence levels, despite any attempts to raise wages.

British Working Class Responses to IndustrialisationEdita

LuddismEdita

The Luddites were a group of workers opposed to the effects of the mechanisation of industry, particularly in textiles. The advent of large scale spinning and weaving machines meant that textiles could be produced at lower costs than previously, undercutting the prices of the traditional cottage industry of handloom weavers.

The attacks of the Luddites began in 1811 and were targeted at the machinery of factory and workshop owners. The campaigns of the Luddites were often closely targeted at specific forms of machinery and, despite the modern connotations of the name, the group were not opposed to progress in principle.

The name of the group is derived from its fictional leader, Ned Ludd. This figure was used as a focal point for demonstrations, and to distract attention from the real leaders of various protests.

The Luddites were followed some years later by the Swing rioters who, following a mythical leader, Captain Swing, opposed the mechanization of agriculture. The Swing riots mostly occurred during the early 1830s and were put down with often severe force.

Trade UnionismEdita

The Luddites were, in essence, part of a reactive movement, fighting against the modernization of methods of production. An alternative, and often more effective, method of action, was the organisation of workers into trade unions, where rights could be secured through collective bargaining and the threat of strikes. Whilst such movements were often not illegal in themselves, many of their actions were. It was, for instance, considered a criminal offence for a workman to break his contract and striking workers could be charged for offences relating to conspiracy or breaches of public order.

Despite this there was a sustained demand on the part of the workers that their rights be recognized and the persistent campaigns of workers eventually achieved the legal recognition of unions.

ChartismEdita

Chartism was the first large-scale working class political movement.

The London Working Men's Association wrote reform goals in a charter, with six points:

  1. Universal male suffrage
  2. Annual election of House of Commons
  3. Secret ballots
  4. Equal electoral districts (to prevent "rotten boroughs")
  5. Abolition of property requirements for the House of Commons
  6. Salaries of members of the House of Commons

Although the Chartist movement did not see immediate success in its aims, all of the main points of the charter, with the exception of annual elections, were adopted by the early twentieth century.

Society and CultureEdita

CapitalismEdita

Industry of Britain, western Europe, and the United States developed within the system of capitalism. "Capital" is a medium of exchange for property or services that are valued. Capitalist systems require the laissez-faire principle of minimal government intervention.

RepublicanismEdita

Republicanism advocated liberty, fraternity, and equality, and was in favor of Constitutions, Parliaments, and democracies. It opposed the monarchy, aristocracy, and the church. Republicans tended to be students, writers, members of the intelligentsia, and also workers. Republicans were supporters of the French Revolution and its ideals.

LiberalismEdita

Liberalism, or classic liberalism, at the time advocated free trade, laissez faire, constitutions, parliaments, and no violence. It didn't advocate democracy, but rather constitutional monarchy. Liberals tended to be middle class merchants and professionals.

ConservatismEdita

Conservatism rose as a reaction to the liberal ideas that began with the violence, terror, and social disorder of the French Revolution. It was supported by the traditional ruling class, as well as by the peasants. Conservatives believed in order of the society and state, based on faith and tradition. Metternich was the champion of Conservatism and tried to preserve its ideals and the Old Regime through the Congress System. Conservatives were opposed to the Enlightenment and its effects, and were anti-revolution, anti-democracy, and anti-nationalism. They preferred tradition, gradual reform, and the maintenance of the Old Regime.

SocialismEdita

Socialism is the theory or system of social organization in which the means of productions and distribution of goods are owned collectively or by a central government authority. The idea was fostered to combat the industrial society that allowed millions to toil endlessly while a few owners reaped all the benefits of their labor. Socialists argued that liberalism was fragmenting society, and that socialism would reunite it. After 1815, socialism became the new radical doctrine, especially in France. Socialists fought to protect the interests of the workers rather than capitalists, and argued that wealth is unfairly distributed and that thus workers deserve a larger share. Socialism was a diverse political philosophy and encompassed the views of many different thinkers, such as Saint-Simon, Fourier and Owen.

Henri de Saint-SimonEdita

Henry de Saint-Simon believed that the elite of society lacked the skills necessary to be valued so highly. He believed that rewards should be in proportion to one's social contribution, and that society should be run by qualified technocrats, or a technically skilled elite.

Charles FourierEdita

Charles Fourier was a French merchant, whose experiences of the French Revolution led him to believe that free market capitalism in general, and speculation in particular, was damaging to the welfare of all. His solution was to suggest a planned economy, based around idea communities known as phalanstries, where 1,620 people would live in a single building surrounded by 5,000 acres of land. By centralising production, efficient agriculture and industry could be achieved. Although his plans were never put into practice, his utopian socialism was an important influence on later thinkers.

Robert OwenEdita

Robert Owen was a Welsh manufacturer. In his mills at New Lanark in Scotland he proved that investing in the welfare of employees could be profitable. He provided his workers with schools and free accommodation. By doing this Owen was rewarded with a hard-working and loyal workforce, and his mills were some of the most profitable and productive in Britain.

Owen was later to invest his profits in the community of New Harmony in the United States of America. The community was heavily reliant upon the leadership of Owen and quickly foundered. Although Owen's communities did not long outlast his lifetime, his thinking was highly influential amongst later socialists, and the term communist was originally coined to describe Owen's followers.

Karl Marx (1818-1883)Edita

Probably the most important socialist thinker of the nineteenth century was the German writer Karl Marx. Marx's rise to prominence began in the Year of Revolutions, 1848, with the publication of The Communist Manifesto, a volume which he wrote with the help of Frederick Engels. The book was an attempt to create political tension between economic classes around the world. He also wrote Das Kapital, a critique of capitalism that argues as to why Marx believed capitalism should fail. He sought to incite the violent revolution of the proletariat against the bourgeois. The proletariat described the working class, while the bourgeois described the middle and upper classes that owned the means of production. This revolution would be caused by what Marx described as a historic class struggle between these two groups. After this revolution, Marx argued for the formation of a classless society, in which no private property, religion, or government existed.

Marx also advocated the concept of dialectical materialism. The theory states that history is driven by economic conditions and material private property inequality. This theory was based on Hegel's dialectic theory, in which a thesis and antithesis are resolved into a synthesis. The end of Marx's concept of dialectical history is the synthesis of communism because private property is prohibited. Marx believed that the rise of the proletariat was inevitable, even if he had never existed and written his book. This is what separates Marxism from Utopian Socialism - Utopian Socialism required the benevolent and peaceful surrender of the means of production by capitalists.

UtilitarianismEdita

Proposed by Bentham, it suggested that the best form of government does the most good for the greatest number of people.

NationalismEdita

Nationalism was spawned by Napoleon's empire, and emphasized pride in one's language, tradition, culture, and religion. Nationalism caused conflict over boundaries in Europe. Nationalists frequently looked to folktales, poems, songs, grammar, and dictionaries for sources of traditional culture in a nation. Nationalism especially came to rise in Germany, Italy, Ireland, Poland, and Hungary.

Romantic ArtEdita

The romantic art movement took place in the 1800s, especially emphasizing emotion, imagination, drama, disorder, and dark colors. Romantic art typically portrays the mystical communion of art and nature, typically using picturesque or exotic subjects. Romantic art reinforced individualism.

Francisco Goya (1746-1828)Edita

 
Francisco Goya. The Third of May 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid. 1814. Oil on canvas. 345 x 266 cm. Madrid: Museo del Prado.

Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes was an influential Spanish painter of the Romantic period. Perhaps his most famous work was The Third of May 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid, which portrays the Napoleonic Wars in Spain, with a faceless French firing squad murdering members of the Spanish resistance.

DelacroixEdita

Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix was the leader of the French Romanticism in painting. Delacroix's techniques would prove to be an important influence on others. His use of expressive color profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionist and Symbolist movements.

Imperialisme e nasionalisme europeanEdita

IntroductionEdita

The period between 1870 and 1914 saw a Europe that was considerably more stable than that of previous decades. To a large extent this was the product of the formation of new states in Germany and Italy, and political reformations in older, established states, such as Britain and Austria. This internal stability, along with the technological advances of the industrial revolution, meant that European states were increasingly able and willing to pursue political power abroad.

Imperialism was not, of course, a concept novel to the nineteenth century. A number of European states, most notably Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands, had carved out large overseas empires in the age of exploration. However, the new technologies of the nineteenth century encouraged imperial growth. Quinine, for instance, allowed for the conquest of inland Africa, whilst the telegraph enabled states to monitor their imperial possessions around the world. When the value of these new technologies became apparent, the states of Europe began to take control of large swathes of territory in Africa and Asia, heralding in a new era of imperialism

The States of EuropeEdita

FranceEdita

After France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, Bismarck required France to hold elections so that he could negotiate a peace. Elections were held for a provisional government, and monarchists were elected, which was unacceptable to revolutionaries of Paris. Paris responded by forming its own government, a 40 member council or "commune" with its own national guard. The commune established the equality of all citizens, promotion of women's rights, and communal workshops. On May 21, Adolph Theirs, leader of the French provisional government, sent in troops to "restore order" in Paris. Members of the commune killed the Archbishop, packed the Tuileries with gunpowder, and blew it up. When it was all over, however, 20,000 Parisians had been killed by the troops.

Thus began the 3rd Republic of France from 1871 until 1940. The 3rd Republic consisted of a ceremonial President and a two chamber Parliament with universal male suffrage.

GermanyEdita

 
Otto von Bismarck

The idea of a German state had existed since the formation of the Kingdom of Germany in the early Middle Ages. The kingdom was succeeded by the Holy Roman Empire, but the authority of the emperors was weak, and the power of the central state declined until its final abolition in 1806. In 1815 the German-speaking territories were divided into around 40 states, many of them small.

The beginnings of popular nationalism in Germany can be traced to Napoleon's invasion of German territory in 1806. Whilst this act helped precipitate the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, Napoleon's political machinations helped to encourage nationalist feeling. Many people within the German heartlands wished to escape the influence of foreign autocrats, such as the emperors of France and Austria, and build their own state.

This broad feeling was encouraged by the works of eighteenth century German writers and philosophers, such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and particularly Johann Gottfried von Herder. With his work on aesthetics, gothic art, and folk poetry, Herder encouraged an idea that the Germans had a rich common cultural heritage. Although Herder glorified the Germans, he was well travelled, feeling that every country had its unique features, and was worthy of some admiration.

However, the unification of Germany was not solely due to nationalism. It is worth noting that, in an era when Europe was increasingly dominated by large empires, many German states were small to the point of insignificance. Most German rulers understood that there was strength in working together. This understanding was to lead to inter-state co-operation across the region, the most notable example being the Zollverein, the customs union that encompassed most of northern Germany by the early 1830s.

This variety of factors, both nationalistic and economic, were exploited by the conservative King of Prussia, William I, and his chief minister, Otto von Bismarck. Both understood the value of a unified German state, particularly one which excluded Austrian influence.

Wars of UnificationEdita

Whilst he had a clear idea that the unification of Germany should be his goal, Bismarck was a shrewd politician and exploited, rather than initiated, events. The complicated dynastic successions within the German confederation proved to be a useful tool to this end.

The first such conflict was triggered by the Schleswig-Holstein problem. Schleswig and Holstein were German duchies whose ruler was also the Danish king, Frederick VII. Frederick's death in 1863 caused consternation amongst German nationalists as his successor, Christian IX, decided to annex Schleswig and Holstein, and make the German duchies into part of the Danish state. The Diet of the German Confederation demanded that this be prevented and encouraged Prussia and Austria, the only German states to have significant military strength, to invade Denmark.

The war between Denmark and the Germany states was short and decisive and the Danes were defeated in 1864. In the resultant peace treaty, the Danish king renounced his rights to the disputed territories of Schleswig and Holstein to Prussia and Austria respectively.

The occupation of Schleswig and Holstein was to prove the catalyst for the next German war, the Seven Weeks War of 1866. Whilst control of these provinces was regulated by the Gastein Convention of 1865, Bismarck was able to provoke the Austrians into declaring war. This was as decisive as the previous conflict. The meticulously planned Prussian advances outmaneuvered the Austrians, who were forced on the defensive, and quickly defeated.

In 1867, Prussia established the North German Confederation, made up of 21 small northern states with a constitution and Kaiser Wilhelm as king. The small states were still in a vacuum, however, and needed some form of encouragement to join with Prussia.

In 1870, Prince Leopold Hohenzollern was asked to take the crown in Spain, and France demanded that the Prussians agree that no Hohenzollern ever take the Spanish throne in the so-called "Ems Dispatch." Bismarck manipulated the telegram; his modifications made France and Germany appear more hostile than they actually were. After he released it to the press in Europe, France declared war on Prussia, and the remaining German states joined Prussia for protection.

The Franco-Prussian war lasted from 1870 to 1871, and resulted in the defeat of Emperor Napoleon III. He was captured on September 2, 1870 at the Battle of Sedan. On January 18, 1871, the German Empire was proclaimed at Versailles as a major snub to the French. On May 1871, the Treaty of Frankfurt was signed, and France ceded Alsace-Lorraine and 5 billion gold francs to Germany.

ItalyEdita

Throughout the Middle Ages and early modern period Italy consisted of a patchwork of small states. Its urbanization and position in the Mediterranean meant that Italy was a politically important region and, for much of this period it was dominated by foreign powers, most notably the Bourbon dynasty which, during the eighteenth century, provided kings for both France and Spain.

The dominance of foreign powers was brought to an end by the Napoleonic wars. Napoleon's attempts to dominate the peninsula failed, and the monarchies of France and Spain were weakened by long years of war. Moreover, Napoleon had attempted to conglomerate much of Italy into a single state, a process that encouraged a sense of the Italians belonging to a nation. It is notable, for instance, that Napoleon provided Italy with its national flag, the green, white, and red tricolore.

Although the Treaty of Vienna restored many of the small Italian states, nationalist feeling remained, and was preserved by nationalistic and revolutionary groups, such as the Carbonari in southern Italy. These groups were inspired by revolutionary activity in other European states. As a result, the early nineteenth century saw numerous small insurrections against the autocrats ruling the Italian states, most notably with the French-inspired revolts of 1831, which afflicted the Papal States. Such revolts were frequently small in scale, however, and were easily dealt with by the rulers of Italy.

The Italian Unification movement was led primarily by two central figures: Count Camillo Benso di Cavour, who supplied much of the ideology for the movement, and Giuseppe Garibaldi, who led the fighting of the movement. Cavour was the Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia and served King Victor Emmanuel II. He built up the strength of Piedmont-Sardinia, establishing a strong army, a healthy economy, and political freedoms, such as freedom of the press. He gained the support of Napoleon III by promising him Savoy and Nice. Austria invaded Italy, but the Italians, aided by French troops, defeated the Austrians at the battles of Magenta and Solferino.

Garibaldi led the Red Shirts, or guerrilla fighters in Italy. He was a supporter of a republic but conceded to a monarchy. He took his forces into southern Italy and successfully conquered Naples and the two Sicilies. Cavour sent troops south to stop Garibaldi from invading Rome, which was occupied by French troops, but both sides met in Naples and surprisingly became allies. In 1861, the Kingdom of Italy was declared with Piedmont's Victor Emmanuel as king. However, Italy's agrarian south and industrial north had difficulty uniting, and the unification was not complete until 1870, at the end of the Franco-Prussian War.

RussiaEdita

 
Tsar Alexander II, his wife Marie and son, the future Alexander III

During the late 1800s, Russia began to work to increase its power and to overall westernize itself. The state was considered weaker in military terms than other nations and had lost to Britain and France in the Crimean War of 1853–1856. It had an autocratic tsar with no social contract, and serfdom still existed in Russia. There was a small middle class with much less industrialization.

Nicholas I came to power after the death of his brother, Alexander I. His reign began marred by the Decembrist revolt of 1825 among the soldiers, some of whom supported his other brother. Thus, Nicholas ruled through police action and use of the army.

Alexander II came to power, using the defeat in the Crimean War as the major impetus to reform. He believed that Russia needed to follow the European model in order to become more powerful. As a result, in 1861, he gave the serfs freedom. However, the serfs were still bound in many ways to their formal feudal dues. The former serfs were given only half of the land, and the nobles were allowed to keep the other half. In addition, former serfs had to pay a communal redemption fee to their former lords.

In addition, Alexander II ended the secret police started by Nicholas I, and he created public trials that had professional judges with state salaries as well as juries. Zemstvos were created, which were local provincial councils, elected by the people, that dealt with local governmental issues such as roads and schools. Finally, Alexander reduced the draft from 25 years to 6 years.

Despite Alexander's actions, unrest continued in Russia. Peasant revolutionaries resented the redemption fees, and two new groups arose in Russia. The first, the nihilists, believed in nothing but science and rejected traditional society and culture. The second, the anarchists, led by Mikhail Bakunin, set out to destroy any government, even a reformist tsar like Alexander II. In 1881, an anarchist group known as the "People's Will" assassinated Alexander II with a bomb.

Russo-Japanese War 1904–1905Edita

In 1860, the Russians founded the city of Vladivostok on the Pacific Ocean, and began work on the Trans-Siberian Railroad to connect the East to the West. The Russo-Japanese war was caused by the imperialist ambitions of Russia and Japan in Manchuria and Korea. In a number of key battles, the war resulted in a surprise victory for Japan in a peace agreement brokered by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1905.

The war resulted in the establishment of Japan as a major world power. Japan modeled European industrialization and militarism, and increased its focus on China, gaining dominion over Korea and establishing a claim to Manchuria. This expansion helped to cause World War I. The war marked the first major victory of a non-western power over a western power. As a result of the failure of the war in Russia, there was considerable discontent at home, and this discontent led to the Revolution of 1905. Finally, as a result of the defeat, Russia turned its interests back to the West and the Balkans.

The Revolution of 1905Edita

Under Czar Nicholas II, who ruled from 1896 to 1917, the people believed that "papa czar" could hear their grievances and he would fix them. However, the people soon learned that the czar could not be trusted.

On what has become known as "Bloody Sunday," June 22, 1905, a peaceful march of thousands of St. Petersburg workers to the Winter Palace by Father Gapon took place. The marchers desired an eight hour work day, the establishment of a minimum wage, and a constitutional assembly. However, the Czar was not in the city, and Russian troops panicked and killed several hundred of the marchers.

As a result of Bloody Sunday, riots erupted throughout the country during 1905. Soviets formed the councils of workers in St. Petersburg and Moscow. Demands for representation increased, and the moral bond between the people and the czar was broken. As a result, the October Manifesto was granted to stop the disturbances. The October Manifesto provided a constitution, a parliament called the Duma, and some civil liberties. The Duma actually possessed little power, however, and was primarily intended to divide and subdue the revolutionaries.

Stolypin's ReformsEdita

Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin was appointed minister by the Czar to address the problems of 1905. At Stolypin's recommendation, the czar ended redemption payments by the serfs, increased the power of the zemstvos, and allowed the peasants to own their land outright for the first time. Peasants were now allowed to buy more land to increase their holdings, and were even given loans. In some sense this was a sincere attempt at reform, and it created a new class of prosperous, entrepreneurial peasants called Kulaks. However, for the most part this was again an attempt to subdue revolutionaries, as the ulterior motive of the plan was to create a new class of peasant farmers who would be conservative and loyal to the czar. Under Stolypin's lead, revolutionaries and dissenters were brutally punished in what became known as "Stolypin Neckties." Stolypin was assassinated in 1911.

International RelationsEdita

ImperialismEdita

In 1871, political stability of European nations resulted in renewed interest in imperialist endeavors. Britain became heavily involved in colonialism. The newly-unified Germany saw expansion as a sign of greatness. France also became involved in imperialist affairs due to foreign competition.

 
The white man's burden - a satiric take

Europe's political, military and economic domination of the world gave birth to the British notion of the white man's burden. The white man's burden held that the white man had an obligation to forcefully spread their ideas and institutions with others. This, of course, was utilized by some European governments as moral justification for their imperialistic foreign policies.

In addition, as a result of European industrialization, nations had an increased need for various resources, such as cotton, rubber, and fuel. Moreover, a high level of nationalism was at the time being experienced across Europe, particularly as a result of Napoleon's Empire. As nationalism grew at home, citizens began to desire more troops for their army, and thus colonies were needed to provide more troops, as well as naval bases and refueling points for ships.

By the late 1800s, a number of nations across Europe possessed new colonial territories. Belgium had taken the Congo in central Africa. France controlled Algeria, and Italy controlled Somalia.

It was said that "The sun never sets on the British Empire." By this time, Britain's colonial territories spanned the world, and during the late 1800s Britain expanded their territorial possessions to include Egypt, Kenya, and South Africa.

In Asia, the British, Dutch and French all established or expanded their colonies.

Crimean WarEdita

The Crimean War found its roots in the so-called "Eastern Question," or the question of what to do with the decaying Ottoman Empire.

The Crimean War was provoked by Russian tsar Nicholas I's continuing pressure on the dying Ottoman Empire, and by Russia's claims to be the protector of the Orthodox Christian subjects of the Ottoman sultan.

Britain and France became involved in order to block Russian expansion and prevent Russians from acquiring control of the Turkish Straits and eastern Mediterranean, and to prevent Russia from upsetting the European balance of power.

The Crimean War is considered one of the first "modern" wars and it introduced a number of "firsts" to warfare. The Crimean War marked the first time railroads were used tactically to transport troops and to transport goods to troops over vast distances. The War also marked the first time steam powered ships were used in war. Additionally, new weapons and techniques were used, including breech-loading rifles, which loaded from the rear, artillery, and the deployment of trenches. The telegraph was used for the first time as well, allowing for the first "live" war to be broadcast in the press.

The conflict marked the end of Metternich's Concert of Europe. At the end of the war, Russia was defeated and as a result looked weak. The shock of the defeat in the Crimean War in Russia led to Alexander II enacting sweeping internal reform. Alexander recognized that in order to compete with other nations, it would have to industrialize and modernize. As a step toward this, Alexander liberated the serfs in 1861. Finally, the Ottoman Empire was kept intact, and it would continue to decline until World War I.

Science and TechnologyEdita

Darwin's Theory of EvolutionEdita

In his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) wrote that creatures experience genetic mutations prior to birth. Some of these random mutations are beneficial, and some are not. He wrote that in the world, the creatures who are the "most fit" are most likely to survive and thus pass on their genes. This process, known as natural selection results in the strongest creatures thriving and the weak dying off.

One of the most massive results of Darwin's theory of evolution was that it was another major challenge to the Catholic Church. This, coupled with the Reformation, Renaissance, the Enlightenment and its subsequent rise of deism, and other related movements, caused the Church to lose even more influence in society.

Also, Darwin's theory led to the rise of the concept of social Darwinism, or "survival of the fittest." The theory was fathered by Herbert Spencer. Social Darwinism espoused the idea that consensual economic interaction and property rights enabled societies to progress by allowing productive members of society to flourish and unproductive members to be punished by poverty. Accordingly, the theory of social Darwinism had a large impact on classical liberal and libertarian theory. However, in non-libertarian circles, social Darwinism did not enjoy a favorable reputation, as it was perceived to have espoused apologism on behalf of the rich, while condemning the poor.

New Mental SciencesEdita

As a result of Darwin's theory, a new group of mental sciences arose. People now began to believe that life is a struggle, and they began to try to explain these struggles. These new mental sciences supported the concepts of real politik and capitalism, and rejected the notion that life is orderly, harmonious, predictable, or reasonable.

During this time, Sigmund Freud founded what is known as the psychoanalytical school of psychology. He argued that people are not creatures of reason, as the Enlightenment suggested, but rather that people act because of subconscious motivations. He broke these motivations into three areas:

Id 
The id produces unconscious desires and is the most primitive of the three. The id desires instant gratification. Freud argued that people will use defense mechanisms and rationalization to justify acting upon the id.
Ego
The ego is the reality principle or the conscious self. It attempts to suppress the id and its intense desires.
Superego 
The superego is a person's conscience.

Lombroso argued that you can tell criminals by their appearance. Pavlov argued that people's actions are a response to being conditioned by stimuli in an environment. Finally, Binet devised IQ tests, arguing that intelligence is a measurable quotient. As a result, eugenicists used this to try to prove that some people were more fit to live than others.

Society and CultureEdita

The Victorian Age was a period in which appearances were critical to social status. The dominating social class was the middle class, or bourgeosie. High moral standards and strict social codes, especially of etiquette and class status, were followed. This era also saw a middle-class interest in social reform for the lower classes.

Modern life was often unsettling to Europeans, as their old ways were being replaced by urbanization, industrialization, socialism, imperialism, and countless other new "ways."

The population was rising, with the Agricultural Revolution as well as advances in medicine allowing the citizens to live longer. This resulted in a portion of the rising population migrating to other locations, including emigrating to other nations. Europeans migrated from the country to the city in search of industrial jobs. In addition, many Europeans fled to the United States, South America, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand for a number of reasons - to escape anti-semitic persecution, to flee the Irish potato famine of 1840, and as a result of a general overcrowding in Italy.

However, at the same time, there were falling birth rates as a result of massive social changes in Europe. Child labor laws were being enacted across the continent, and compulsory education was enacted. Thus, the value of children to families fell since they could not generate income, and the overall cost of having children was now bore much more upon the parents.

White collar workers now arose in society, and Europe saw the entrance of educated females into clerical jobs in business and government. Disposable income became more common, and thus department stores and other similar stores began to open. People spent their extra income on fashion, home furnishings, cameras, and various other items. New leisure activities became popular, including hunting, travelling, and bicycling, as well as team sports, including polo, cricket, and soccer.

Impressionist ArtEdita

 
Monet's Water Lily Pond (Le bassin aux Nympheas) (1889)

Impressionism was a 19th-century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s. The name of the movement is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satiric review published in Le Charivari.

Radicals in their time, early Impressionists broke the rules of academic painting. They began by giving colours, freely brushed, primacy over line, drawing inspiration from the work of painters such as Eugène Delacroix. They also took the act of painting out of the studio and into the world. Previously, still lifes and portraits as well as landscapes had usually been painted indoors. The Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting en plein air. Painting realistic scenes of modern life, they emphasized vivid overall effects rather than details. They used short, "broken" brush strokes of pure and unmixed colour, not smoothly blended, as was customary, in order to achieve the effect of intense colour vibration.

Post Impressionist ArtEdita

 
Vincent van Gogh's Starry Night, June 1889 (The Museum of Modern Art, New York)

Post-Impressionists extended Impressionism while rejecting its limitations: they continued using vivid colours, thick application of paint, distinctive brushstrokes and real-life subject matter, but they were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary colour.

The Post-Impressionists were dissatisfied with the triviality of subject matter and the loss of structure in Impressionist paintings, though they did not agree on the way forward. Georges Seurat and his followers concerned themselves with Pointillism, the systematic use of tiny dots of colour. Paul Cézanne set out to restore a sense of order and structure to painting, to "make of Impressionism something solid and durable, like the art of the museums". He achieved this by reducing objects to their basic shapes while retaining the bright fresh colours of Impressionism. The Impressionist Camille Pissarro experimented with Neo-Impressionist ideas between the mid 1880s and the early 1890s. Discontented with what he referred to as romantic Impressionism, he investigated Pointillism which he called scientific Impressionism before returning to a purer Impressionism in the last decade of his life. Vincent van Gogh used colour and vibrant swirling brush strokes to convey his feelings and his state of mind. Although they often exhibited together, Post-Impressionist artists were not in agreement concerning a cohesive movement. Younger painters during the 1890s and early 20th century worked in geographically disparate regions and in various stylistic categories, such as Fauvism and Cubism.

Christianity and Religion QuestionedEdita

New scientific theories such as Darwin's Theory of Evolution and Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis threatened traditional values. Historical scholarship, especially archaeology, led to questioning the veracity of the Bible, and philosophers like Marx and Nietzsche cast doubt on the morality of Christianity. Due to government's expanding role in education, organized religion also came under attack from the secular state.

These pressures led Pope Pius IX to put forth the Doctrine of Papal Infallibility. Pope Leo XIII addressed the great social issues of the day, condemning Socialism but urging improvements in labor conditions.

Gera Mundal 1Edita

IntroduiEdita

As a result of German unity and increasing German nationalism, as well as various other causes, Germany began on what Kaiser Wilhelm II called a "new course" to earn its "place in the sun." After 1871, Germany's trade and industry increased vigorously, challenging and, in some areas, even exceeding that of Great Britain, until then the premier industrial nation of Europe. A many-sided rivalry developed between Germany and Britain, intensifying when the sometimes-bellicose Wilhelm II assumed power and began building a strong, ocean-going navy.

Seeking to balance the rise of German power, Britain and France began to draw closer together diplomatically as the 20th century began. Germany, meanwhile, had allowed an implicit alliance with Tsarist Russia to lapse, and faced ongoing French resentment over the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine which Germany had annexed in 1871. The perceived danger of "encirclement" by hostile nations began to loom in the minds of German leaders. These factors together formed some of the tinder which would ignite the outbreak of war in 1914.

It is interesting to note, however, that all the ruling families of Europe were related to each other in some form or fashion. This led to many Europeans feeling that it was a family affair that they had been dragged into and forced to endure.

The Road to WarEdita

World War One is one of the most hotly contested issues in history; the complexity and number of theorized causes can be a major cause for confusion. One of the main reasons for this complexity is the long period over which this war’s tension built, beginning with the unification of Germany by Bismarck, and escalating from there on. There is no doubt that Germany's misguided foreign policy contributed to the outbreak of war, however the extent to which it contributed is the contended issue.

Some historians suggest that Germany willed the war and engineered its outbreak, and others even suggest that Germany felt compelled to go to war at that time. However, some suggest that the war was brought about by poor leadership at the time, others argue that the war was brought about by accident - that Europe stumbled into war due to tension between alliance systems. Finally, some historians argue that World War I was the culmination of historical developments in Europe. This argument states that war was inevitable between Austria and Serbia, that imperial expansion by Russia eastward was also likely to provoke war, and that the French were still furious over their loss of Alsace-Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian war.

There was certainly a general rise in nationalism in Europe, which played a major role in the start of the conflict. The war became inevitable when the so-called "blank check" was created when Austro-Hungarian Emperor Franz Joseph sent a letter to German Kaiser Wilhelm II, asking for German support against Serbia. Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, Kaiser Wilhelm II's Imperial Chancellor, telegrammed back that Austria-Hungary could rely on Germany to support whatever action was necessary to deal with Serbia.

The Alliance SystemEdita

One factor which helped to escalate the conflict was the alliance system of the late nineteenth century. Although there had always been alliances between different European nations, the diplomatic trend during the nineteenth century was to have secret alliances, committing states to defensive military action. These were encouraged by Bismarck who, in the process of unifying Germany, sought to pacify those surrounding states which might proved hostile. Although Germany had originally allied itself with the empires of Austria and Russia at this time, by the beginning of the twentieth century alliances had shifted. Germany found itself allied with Austria-Hungary and Italy, the so-called "Central Powers"; together the countries formed what was known as the "Triple Alliance". Meanwhile, France, desperate for allies after the Franco-Prussian war, had cultivated a friendship with Russia. Great Britain, too, felt isolated in the increasingly factionalised European environment, and sought out an alliance with another of Europe's great powers. This led to the Entente Cordial with France, which was to develop into the "Triple Entente" between Britain, France and Russia.

By 1914 most of the smaller European states had been drawn into this web of alliances. Serbia had allied itself with Russia whilst its enemy, Bulgaria, chose the patronage of Germany. A number of small states maintained their neutrality in this complicated network of alliances. Belgium, for instance, was a neutral state, its independence guaranteed by Britain, France, and Germany.

The WarEdita

The Schlieffen PlanEdita

 
Map of the Schlieffen Plan and planned French counter-offensives

The Schlieffen Plan was designed by Field Marshall Count Alfred von Schlieffen, who became Chief of the Great General Staff in 1891 and submitted his plan in 1905. Out of fear of a two front war, which Germany was nearly certain it could not win, it devised the plan to eliminate one of the fronts of the war before the other side could prepare. The plan called for a rapid German mobilization, sweeping through Holland, Luxembourg and Belgium into France. Schlieffen called for overwhelming numbers on the far right flank, the northernmost spearhead of the force with only minimum troops making up the arm and axis of the formation as well as a minimum force stationed on the Russian eastern front. Swift elimination of the French threat would in theory allow Germany to better defend against a Russian, or a British force. However, the British involvement was not looked for under the Schlieffen plan, not at the commencement of action at least.
In 1905 Count Schlieffen expected his overpowering right wing to move basically along the coast through Holland. He expected the Dutch to acquiesce and grant the army the right to cross their borders. Schlieffen knew that navigating around the Belgian fortress at Liege in this way would speed the advance while still defeating the fortress simply by encirclement. Schlieffen retired from his post in 1906 and was replaced by Helmuth von Moltke. In 1907-08 Moltke adjusted the plan, reducing the proportional distribution of the forces, lessening the crucial right wing in favor of a slightly more defensive strategy. Also, judging Holland as unlikely to grant permission to cross its borders the plan now called for a direct move through Belgium but expected the French force to officially invade neutral Belgium first in an attempt to take the advantageous position at Meuse. Moltke's variation called for an artillery assault on Liege, but with the rail lines and the unprecedented firepower the German army brought what he did not expect any significant defense of the fortress.

August 1914: War EruptsEdita

On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austria-Hungary throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo. As a result, Austria declared war on Serbia. Germany declared war on both Russia and France. On August 4, Germany invaded neutral Belgium before the French. This precipitated in Great Britain's declaration of war on Germany.

Enacting the Moltke variation of the Schlieffen Plan, German forces entered Belgium, attacking the fortress of Liege. Although they could not stop the large invading force, Belgian troops fought bravely, and the siege lasted 10 days, arguably upsetting the German timetable and allowing for mobilization of the French and the British Expeditionary forces. During the second half of August, however, a hasty French counteroffensive in Lorraine collapsed, with heavy casualties in the face of German machine-gun fire. French armies fell back in disarray as the Germans crossed from Belgium into France on a wide front.

Keeping its alliance with France, Russia's armies invaded Germany's easternmost province, East Prussia, in August. The German high command dispatched General Paul von Hindenburg to defend the province. Hindenburg took command and defeated the Russians at the Battle of Tannenberg, ending the hope of a Russian advance to Berlin.

The end of August was marked by near-panic in northern France as the German offensive rolled south toward Paris, seemingly unstoppable. On the German side, however, a gap developed between the westernmost army corps, and the rapid advance was exhausting the troops. The French rushed reinforcements from Paris -- some in taxicabs -- to the front, and by the first week of September, amid heavy fighting, the Germans had been halted along the River Marne. This marked the beginning of the static trench lines which would define the front in Western Europe for four years.

1915-1916Edita

On February 4, 1915, Germany declared a submarine blockade of Great Britain, stating that any ship approaching England was a legitimate target. On May 7, 1915, Germany sank the passenger ship Lusitania, resulting in a massive uproar in the United States, as over 100 U.S. citizens perished. On August 30, Germany responded by ceasing to sink ships without warning.

The front in France became the focus of mass attacks that cost huge numbers of lives, but gained very little. Britain became fully engaged in France, raising a large conscript army for the first time in its history. 1915 saw the first attacks with chlorine gas by the Germans, and soon the Allies responded in kind. During much of the year 1916, the longest battle of the war, the Battle of Verdun, a German offensive against France and Britain, was fought to a draw and resulted in an estimated one million casualties. On July 1 through November 18, the Battle of Somme, a British and French offensive against the Germans, again resulted in approximately one million casualties but no breakthrough for either side.

1917-1918: Final PhasesEdita

On February 1, 1917, Germany again declares unrestricted submarine warfare. The Germans believed that it was possible to defeat the British in six months through this, and assumed it would take at least one year for America to mobilize as a result of the actions. Thus, they banked on the hope that they could defeat Britain before America would enter the war.

A mood of cultural despair had settled over much of Europe by this time, as an entire generation of young men was fed into the maw of combat. French armies came close to mutiny in 1917 when ordered into an attack they knew would be hopeless. Germany, blockaded from overseas trade, saw hunger and deprivation among the population, with labor strikes and political discontent growing. Russia underwent collapse, its armies defeated and the Tsar ousted in favor of a liberal-socialist regime.

On April 6, 1917, the United States entered the war by declaring war on Germany. This was in part due to the sinking of the Lusitania and the Zimmerman Telegram, which was a ploy to convince Mexico to attack the United States in exchange for the return of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona should the United States enter the war. From July 31 through November 10, 1917, the Third Battle of Ypres, also known as Passchendaele, resulted in minor gains for the British, but there was still no breakthrough of the well-developed German defenses. During this time, on November 7, Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, overthrew the post-Tsar Russian government.

As a result, in March 1918, the new Russian government, represented by Leon Trotsky, signed an armistice treaty with Germany, removing the eastern front of the war for Germany. On March 21, Germany thus launched what is known as the Ludendorff offensive in the hope of winning the war before American troops arrived. The final German effort, however, fared no better in the end than the previous ones; the Germans pushed closer to Paris than ever before, but by the end of summer they had exhausted themselves against the Allied defenses, now including fresh American armies.

On September 29, 1918, allied troops broke through the German fortifications at the Hindenberg line, and the end of the war came into view. On November 9, 1918, Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated, and on November 10 the German Weimar Republic was founded. On November 11, 1918, at eleven o'clock on the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918, the war ended as Germany and the Allies signed an armistice agreement.

The War in ItalyEdita

 
Austro-Hungarian mountain corps in Tyrol

Italy had been allied with the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires since 1882 as part of the Triple Alliance. However, the nation had its own designs on Austrian territory in Province of Trento, Istria and Dalmatia. Rome had a secret 1902 pact with France, effectively nullifying its alliance. At the start of hostilities, Italy refused to commit troops, arguing that the Triple Alliance was defensive in nature, and that Austria-Hungary was an aggressor. The Austro-Hungarian government began negotiations to secure Italian neutrality, offering the French colony of Tunisia in return. The Allies made a counter-offer in which Italy would receive the Alpine province of South Tyrol and territory on the Dalmatian coast after the defeat of Austria-Hungary. This was formalised by the Treaty of London. Further encouraged by the Allied invasion of Turkey in April 1915, Italy joined the Triple Entente and declared war on Austria-Hungary on May 23. Fifteen months later Italy declared war on Germany.

Militarily, the Italians had numerical superiority. This advantage, however, was lost, not only because of the difficult terrain in which fighting took place, but also because of the strategies and tactics employed. Field Marshal Luigi Cadorna, a staunch proponent of the frontal assault, had dreams of breaking into the Slovenian plateau, taking Ljubljana and threatening Vienna. It was a Napoleonic plan, which had no realistic chance of success in an age of barbed wire, machine guns, and indirect artillery fire, combined with hilly and mountainous terrain.

On the Trentino front, the Austro-Hungarians took advantage of the mountainous terrain, which favoured the defender. After an initial strategic retreat, the front remained largely unchanged, while Austrian Kaiserschützen and Standschützen engaged Italian Alpini in bitter hand-to-hand combat throughout the summer. The Austro-Hungarians counter-attacked in the Asiago towards Verona and Padua, in the spring of 1916, but made little progress.

Beginning in 1915, the Italians under Cadorna mounted eleven offensives on the Isonzo front along the Isonzo River, north-east of Trieste. All eleven offensives were repelled by the Austro-Hungarians, who held the higher ground. In the summer of 1916, the Italians captured the town of Gorizia. After this minor victory, the front remained static for over a year, despite several Italian offensives. In the autumn of 1917, thanks to the improving situation on the Eastern front, the Austrians received large numbers of reinforcements, including German Stormtroopers and the elite Alpenkorps. The Central Powers launched a crushing offensive on 26 October 1917, spearheaded by the Germans. They achieved a victory at Caporetto. The Italian army was routed and retreated more than 100 km (60 miles) to reorganise, stabilizing the front at the Piave River. Since in the Battle of Caporetto Italian Army had heavy losses, the Italian Government called to arms the so called '99 Boys (Ragazzi del '99), that is, all males who were 18 years old. In 1918, the Austro-Hungarians failed to break through, in a series of battles on the Asiago Plateau, finally being decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in October of that year. Austria-Hungary surrendered in early November 1918.[2][3][4]

The War at SeaEdita

 
A battleship squadron of the Hochseeflotte at sea

At the start of the war, the German Empire had cruisers scattered across the globe, some of which were subsequently used to attack Allied merchant shipping. The British Royal Navy systematically hunted them down, though not without some embarrassment from its inability to protect Allied shipping. For example, the German detached light cruiser SMS Emden, part of the East-Asia squadron stationed at Tsingtao, seized or destroyed 15 merchantmen, as well as sinking a Russian cruiser and a French destroyer. However, the bulk of the German East Asia Squadron — consisting of the armoured cruisers SMS Scharnhorst and SMS Gneisenau, light cruisers SMS Nürnberg and SMS Leipzig and two transport ships — did not have orders to raid shipping and was instead underway to Germany when it encountered elements of the British fleet. The German flotilla, along with SMS Dresden, sank two armoured cruisers at the Battle of Coronel, but was almost completely destroyed at the Battle of the Falkland Islands in December 1914, with only Dresden and a few auxiliaries escaping, but at the Battle of Más a Tierra these too were destroyed or interned.[5]

Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, Britain initiated a naval blockade of Germany. The strategy proved effective, cutting off vital military and civilian supplies, although this blockade violated generally accepted international law codified by several international agreements of the past two centuries.[6] Britain mined international waters to prevent any ships from entering entire sections of ocean, causing danger to even neutral ships.[7] Since there was limited response to this tactic, Germany expected a similar response to its unrestricted submarine warfare.[8]

The 1916 Battle of Jutland (German: Skagerrakschlacht, or "Battle of the Skagerrak") developed into the largest naval battle of the war, the only full-scale clash of battleships during the war. It took place on 31 May–1 June 1916, in the North Sea off Jutland. The Kaiserliche Marine's High Seas Fleet, commanded by Vice Admiral Reinhard Scheer, squared off against the Royal Navy's Grand Fleet, led by Admiral Sir John Jellicoe. The engagement was a standoff, as the Germans, outmaneuvered by the larger British fleet, managed to escape and inflicted more damage to the British fleet than they received. Strategically, however, the British asserted their control of the sea, and the bulk of the German surface fleet remained confined to port for the duration of the war.

German U-boats attempted to cut the supply lines between North America and Britain.[9] The nature of submarine warfare meant that attacks often came without warning, giving the crews of the merchant ships little hope of survival.[10] The United States launched a protest, and Germany modified its rules of engagement. After the notorious sinking of the passenger ship RMS Lusitania in 1915, Germany promised not to target passenger liners, while Britain armed its merchant ships, placing them beyond the protection of the "cruiser rules" which demanded warning and placing crews in "a place of safety" (a standard which lifeboats did not meet).[11] Finally, in early 1917 Germany adopted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, realizing the Americans would eventually enter the war.[12] Germany sought to strangle Allied sea lanes before the U.S. could transport a large army overseas.

The U-boat threat lessened in 1917, when merchant ships entered convoys escorted by destroyers. This tactic made it difficult for U-boats to find targets, which significantly lessened losses; after the introduction of hydrophone and depth charges, accompanying destroyers might actually attack a submerged submarine with some hope of success. The convoy system slowed the flow of supplies, since ships had to wait as convoys were assembled. The solution to the delays was a massive program to build new freighters. Troop ships were too fast for the submarines and did not travel the North Atlantic in convoys.[13][14] The U-boats had sunk almost 5,000 Allied ships, at a cost of 178 submarines.[15]

World War I also saw the first use of aircraft carriers in combat, with HMS Furious launching Sopwith Camels in a successful raid against the Zeppelin hangars at Tondern in July 1918, as well as blimps for antisubmarine patrol.[16]

Science and TechnologyEdita

New Military Techniques and TechnologiesEdita

Fix:WW1 TitlePicture For Wikipedia Article.jpg
Clockwise from top: Trenches on the Western Front; a British Mark I Tank crossing a trench; Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the Battle of the Dardanelles; a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks and a Sopwith Camel

World War I introduced the first time that total war was employed - that is, the full mobilization of society occurred in participant nations. In addition, it marked the end of war as a "glamorous occupation," showing how brutal and horrifying war could be when fought by industrial nations with mass production of weapons, and mass armies drawn from whole populations.

World War I introduced a number of new technologies and techniques. The outbreak of war took the world from the age of coal to an age where energy was largely derived from petroleum, a much higher-grade fuel source used in many new fighting machines and transport systems on land and sea. The deadliest product of this new industry was chemical warfare, with countless fighting men suffering and dying in gas attacks. Submarines also were used with effect, leading to the advent of depth charges and sonar. Rudimentary tanks and mechanized warfare also entered the battlefield near the end of the war. Finally, the machine gun took its toll for the first time in World War I. All this was aimed at breakthrough in trench warfare, in which both sides would dig deep trenches, and attempt to attack the other side, most often with little or no success.

Society and CultureEdita

The Russian RevolutionEdita

The Russian Revolution marked the first outbreak of communism in Europe. Contrary to popular belief, however, there were in fact two specific and unique revolutions that took place during 1917 - a true Marxist revolution as well as a revolution led by Lenin that was not a true Marxist revolution.

March Revolution of 1917Edita

The peasants were unhappy with the czar as a result of losses from World War I, the lack of real representation and the czar's dismissal of the Duma, the influence of Rasputin upon Alexandra, hunger, food shortages, and industrial working conditions.

As a result, on March 8, 1917, food riots broke out in St. Petersburg; however, the soldiers refused to fire upon the rioters. At this time, two forces were in competition for control of the revolution. Members of the Duma executive committee called for a moderate constitutional government, while Soviets, members of worker councils, pushed for revolution and industrial reform.

On March 15, 1917, the Czar attempted to return to Russia by train, but was stopped by the troops and was forced to abdicate.

From March through November, a provisional government was led by Alexander Kerensky, a socialist, and Prince Lvov. However, this government was destined to fail because it took no action in land distribution, continued to fight in World War I, and failed to fix food shortages. General Kornilov attempted a coup, but Kerensky used the Soviets and Bolsheviks to put down the coup. However, this action showed the weakness of Kerensky.

The March Revolution marked the first time that the class struggle predicted by Karl Marx took place. Thus, the March Revolution was a true Marxist revolution based upon the theories of Marx in The Communist Manifesto.

November Revolution of 1917Edita

 
Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Lenin realized that the time had come to seize the revolution. He authored the "April Theses," in which he promised peace with the Central Powers, redistribution of the land, transfer of the factories to the owners, and the recognition of the Soviets as the supreme power in Russia. In this sense, the November Revolution was led by Lenin rather than being an overall coup by the workers, and thus the November revolution cannot be dubbed a true Marxist revolution.

The Revolution may never have happened had not the Prime Minister of the Time, Aleksandr Kerensky, destroyed the power of authority within the Army and Navy by allowing the Bolshevik and Menshevik committees greater powers. Kerensky effectively disarmed the Man who could have prevented the Revolution ever happening. The man in question, was the Commander-in-Chief, General Lavr Kornilov who attempted to bring to heel the populist Government of Kerensky and instill some authority back in to the state and the Army. Kerensky seized the opportunity to relieve Kornilov of his office and effectively gave the Bolsheviks, namely the Red Guard within the ranks of the Petrograd sailors, a Carte Blanc to take up arms in the so called defense of the Provisional Government. The Army lost its Commander and the streets were handed over to the Bolsheviks.

In March 1918 Lenin established the "dictatorship of the proletariat," adopted the name "Communist Party," and signed the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, withdrawing Russia from World War I.

Civil war raged in Russia from 1918 until 1922, pitting the Reds (Bolsheviks led by Trotsky) against the Whites, which consisted of czarists, liberals, the bourgeois, Mensheviks, the U.S., Britain, and France.

The victorious Bolsheviks acted to eliminate their opposition using secret police groups such as the Cheka, the NKVD, and the KGB. Lenin attempted to maintain Marxism, hoping to reach Marx's state of a propertyless, classless utopia. However, the pursuit of communism generally failed and the economy declined. Accordingly, Lenin enacted the New Economic Policy in March 1921, which compromised many aspects of communism for capitalism's profits.

Modern ArtEdita

The 1900s led to the creation of the new, modern art movement. Fauvism is a type of modern art that emphasized wild, extreme colors, abstraction, simplified lines, freshness, and spontaneity. Cubism is another form of modern art, which utilizes a geometrical depiction of subjects with planes and angles. The modern art movement arose because, with the advent of photography, art subjects no longer needed to be a realistic portrayal.

Perhaps the most famous modern artist is Pablo Picasso, a Spanish painter and sculptor.

ReferesEdita

  1. Kagan, Donalt et al. The Western Heritage Since 1300. 3rd ed. New Jersey:Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.
  2. Model:Citation
  3. Model:Citation
  4. Hickey, 2003, pp. 60-65
  5. Taylor2007,, pp. 39–47
  6. Keene, 2006, pp. 5
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